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  1. Research article

    Spectroscopic analysis used to uncover the original paint colour of the Helsinki Government Palace tower clock faces

    The paint stratigraphy of the two clock faces from the tower clock of the Government Palace in Helsinki (Finland) was analysed in order to determine their original colour before restoration works. Paint cross-...

    Kepa Castro, Ulla Knuutinen, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Maite Maguregui, Juan Manuel Madariaga and Raili Laakso

    Heritage Science 2016 4:36

    Published on: 22 September 2016

  2. Research article

    The origins of the Selden map of China: scientific analysis of the painting materials and techniques using a holistic approach

    Since the ‘rediscovery’ of the Selden map of China, an early seventeenth century map of Asia, in the Bodleian Library in Oxford, the importance of the map in our understanding of globalisation in the early sev...

    Sotiria Kogou, Sarah Neate, Clare Coveney, Amanda Miles, David Boocock, Lucia Burgio, Chi Shing Cheung and Haida Liang

    Heritage Science 2016 4:28

    Published on: 2 September 2016

  3. Research article

    Investigation of coloured lead glass glitter from an early eighteenth century material collection, Cambridge, by electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    Coloured glass glitter is made from thin glass flakes and used for decoration purposes. Published analytical data mainly originates from restoration sites in different countries and is still fragmentary. Sampl...

    Gundel Steigenberger and Christoph Herm

    Heritage Science 2016 4:24

    Published on: 3 August 2016

  4. Research article

    Piet Mondrian’s Broadway Boogie Woogie: non invasive analysis using macro X-ray fluorescence mapping (MA-XRF) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square (MCR-ALS)

    Piet Mondrian’s Broadway Boogie Woogie (1942–1943) was examined using Macro X-Ray Fluorescence mapping (MA-XRF) to help characterize the artist’s materials and understand his creative process as well as the curre...

    Ana Martins, Cynthia Albertson, Chris McGlinchey and Joris Dik

    Heritage Science 2016 4:22

    Published on: 27 July 2016

  5. Communication

    One heritage corrosion product less: basic sodium copper carbonate

    Basic sodium copper carbonate, Na3[Cu2(CO3)3(OH)]∙4H2O, has been mentioned as heritage corrosion product of copper alloys in two publications. The identification relied on the comparison of the powder diffractogr...

    Gerhard Eggert, Andrea Fischer and Robert E. Dinnebier

    Heritage Science 2016 4:27

    Published on: 25 July 2016

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2016 4:35

  6. Research article

    Rock varnish on architectural stone: microscopy and analysis of nanoscale manganese oxide deposits on the Smithsonian Castle, Washington, DC

    The Smithsonian Institution Building, commonly referred to as the Castle, is located on the National Mall in Washington, DC, and was constructed in the mid-nineteenth century for the purpose of housing all mus...

    Edward P. Vicenzi, Carol A. Grissom, Richard A. Livingston and Zoe Weldon-Yochim

    Heritage Science 2016 4:26

    Published on: 22 July 2016

  7. Research article

    Synthetic arsenic sulfides in Japanese prints of the Meiji period

    A multi-analytical investigation of Japanese woodblock prints ranging in date from 1864 to 1895 and covering essentially the time span between the very end of the Edo period and the middle of the Meiji period ...

    Yanbing Luo, Elena Basso, Henry D. Smith and Marco Leona

    Heritage Science 2016 4:17

    Published on: 5 July 2016

  8. Research article

    A multi-technique approach, based on mobile/portable laser instruments, for the in situ pigment characterization of stone sculptures on the island of Crete dating from Venetian and Ottoman period

    A versatile analytical methodology is presented, that combines the application of two mobile laser-based analytical techniques, Raman microscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), for the analysi...

    Zoi Eirini Papliaka, Aggelos Philippidis, Panayiotis Siozos, Maria Vakondiou, Kristalia Melessanaki and Demetrios Anglos

    Heritage Science 2016 4:15

    Published on: 20 June 2016

  9. Research article

    A study of the deterioration of aged parchment marked with laboratory iron gall inks using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and micro hot table

    A great number of historic manuscripts, drawings, etc., many of which are stored and/or exhibited in museums, archives and various collections contain iron gall inks (IGIs) as base scripting material. Although...

    Stamatis C. Boyatzis, Georgia Velivasaki and Ekaterini Malea

    Heritage Science 2016 4:13

    Published on: 11 May 2016

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2016 4:39

  10. Research article

    Effective cleaning of rust stained marble

    Calcareous materials, like marble used in connection with cultural heritage objects such as statues and pedestals, or as wall facings on buildings, often show a brownish staining owing to contact with iron met...

    Sanne Spile, Takayoshi Suzuki, Jesper Bendix and Kim Pilkjær Simonsen

    Heritage Science 2016 4:12

    Published on: 5 May 2016

  11. Research Article

    Analytical imaging studies of the migration of degraded orpiment, realgar, and emerald green pigments in historic paintings and related conservation issues

    Yellow orpiment (As2S3) and red–orange realgar (As4S4) photo-degrade and the nineteenth-century pigment emerald green (Cu(C2H3O2)2·3Cu(AsO2)2) degrades into arsenic oxides. Because of their solubility in water, a...

    Katrien Keune, Jennifer Mass, Apurva Mehta, Jonathan Church and Florian Meirer

    Heritage Science 2016 4:10

    Published on: 21 April 2016

  12. Review

    The two-wavelength laser cleaning methodology; theoretical background and examples from its application on CH objects and monuments with emphasis to the Athens Acropolis sculptures

    The two-wavelength laser cleaning methodology has been introduced and developed in order to meet demanding cleaning challenges in CH. The innovation lies on the combined use of two laser beams, allowing thus c...

    Paraskevi Pouli, Evi Papakonstantinou, Katerina Frantzikinaki, Anastasia Panou, Giasemi Frantzi, Costantinos Vasiliadis and Costas Fotakis

    Heritage Science 2016 4:9

    Published on: 14 April 2016

  13. Research article

    Microscopic study on some Iron Age bronze objects from Western Iran

    A microscopic study on ancient metals was established to identify chemical composition and microstructure of archaeological tin bronze objects. For this purpose, ten small bronze pieces from Baba Jilan Iron Ag...

    Omid Oudbashi and Ata Hasanpour

    Heritage Science 2016 4:8

    Published on: 6 April 2016

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