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Table 1 Analytical results from the samples described in this work

From: Investigation of the painting materials in Zhongshan Grottoes(Shaanxi, China)

Sample Paint layers/colors (max. thickness in μm) ESEM/EDX (main elements) FTIR Raman
S1 L3: Brownish (20) L3: Si, Al, Ca   
  L2: Green (90) L2: Cu, Cl L2: Botallackite, atacamite, calcium oxalate  
  L1: White + orange (90) L1: Pb L1: Lead white L1: Minium
S2 L3: Green (55) L3: Cu, Cl L3: Botallackite, atacamite, copper oxalate  
  L2: Black (25) L1 + L2: Si, Al, Ca, S, Fe, K, Mg L2: Silicate, oxalate, quartz  
  L1: Brown (180)   L1: Silicate, calcium oxalate  
S3 L3: Black (3) L2: Si, K, Al, Ca, S, Fe L2 + L3: Silicate, gypsum, quartz, calcium oxalate, probably oil L3: Carbon black
  L2: Rose (36) L1: Si, Al, K, Fe, Ca (Pb locally) L1: Kaolinite, calcium oxalate, quartz L2: Hematite, gypsum
  L1: Yellow (63)    
S4 L4: White + orange (66) L4: Pb L4: Lead white L4: Minium
  L3: Transparent (8) L3: / L3: only embedding material (FTIR imaging)  
  L2: White - translucent (55) L2: Si, K, Al, Ca L2: Silicate, calcium oxalate  
  L1: Yellow (120) L1: Fe, Si, Al, Ca (Pb locally) L1: Kaolinite, calcium oxalate  
S5 L3: White + orange (88) L3: Pb L3: Lead white L3: Minium
  L2: Rose (66) L2: Si, Al, K, Ca L2: Silicate, calcium oxalate, gypsum L2: Hematite, gypsum
  L1: Yellow (22) L1: Si, Fe, Al, Ca, K L1: Kaolinite, calcium oxalate  
S6 L5: Red (22) L5: Hg, S, Ca, Pb, Si, K, Al L5 + L4: Silicate, probably oil L5: HgS, minium
  L4: Orange (33) L4: Pb, Hg, S, Si, K, Al   L4: Minium, litharge, massicot
  L3: Brown (310) L3: Si, Al, K, Fe, Ca L3: Silicate, calcium oxalate, quartz  
  L2: Orange (33)    
  L1: Brown (66)   L1: Silicate, calcium oxalate, quartz L2: Minium
S7 L5: Orange (33) L5: Pb, Fe   
  L4: Red (66) L4: Si, Al, Fe, Ca L4: Silicate, calcium oxalate, probably oil  
  L3: Red (11) L3: Fe L3: Silicate, calcium oxalate  
  L2: White-brown (70) L2: Si, K, Al, Ca L2: Silicate, calcium oxalate  
  L1: Brown (500) L1: Ca, Si, Al, K, Fe L1: Silicate, calcium oxalate  
S8 L8: Gold (1) L8: Au L8-L4: Silicate, quartz, calcium oxalate, probably oil  
  L7: Preparation layer (20) L7: Si, Al, K, Fe L3: Silicate  
  L6: Gold (1) L6: Au   
  L5: Preparation layer (20) L5: Si, Al, K, Fe   
  L4: Gold (1) L4: Au   
  L3: Beige (35) L3: Si, Al, K   
  L2: White (70) L2: Pb, Si, Al, K, Fe   
  L1: Light gray (66) L1: Si, Al, K