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Table 1 Chemicals and application methods tested

From: Investigation of the stabilization of verdigris-containing rag paper by wet chemical treatments

  Chemical Details Application methods
Blank carrier Water Deionized Spraying on a suction table
Ethanol 96% Spraying on a suction table
Deacidification Calcium hydrogen carbonate in water and ethanol mixture (2:1) <0.012 M in water diluted with ethanol Spraying on a suction table, brushing on the verso
Calcium hydroxide in water and ethanol mixture (2:1) Saturated solution diluted to pH 9.3 with water and then mixed with ethanol Spraying on a suction table
Magnesium hydrogen carbonate in water and ethanol mixture (2:1) <0.012 M in water diluted with ethanol Spraying on a suction table, brushing on the verso
Magnesium propylate* in 1-propanol 5% v/v Spraying on a suction table, the same as without suction
Antioxidant Tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) in ethanol 0.03 M (~1% w/v) Spraying on a suction table, brushing on the verso
Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) in ethanol 0.2%, 1% w/v Spraying on a suction table, brushing on the verso
Complexation 1H-benzotriazole (BTA) in ethanol 5%, 0.5%, 3% w/v Spraying on a suction table, brushing on the verso
Two step-calcium phytate/calcium hydrogen carbonate treatment** 1.75 mM Ca phytate in water followed by 0.012 M CaCO3 in water Spraying on a suction table
Modified calcium phytate*** in a mixture of water and ethanol (2:1) (M-Ca phytate) 1.75 mM Ca phytate in water and ethanol (2:1) Spraying on a suction table, brushing on the verso
  1. *The reagent was provided by PAL Preservation Academy GmbH Leipzig. 5% (v/v) of the reagent in 1-propanol can deposit around 0.5% w/w of MgCO3 in Whatman no. 1 paper by spraying.
  2. **References: [20, 21].
  3. ***It was modified by adding a non-ionic surfactant mixture to increase solubility (stable suspension) of calcium phytate in water and ethanol mixture. Details will be presented elsewhere.