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Table 5 Trace element composition of obsidian artefacts found in the Tuscany archaeological site

From: Mediterranean and Near East obsidian reference samples to establish artefacts provenance

  All data (71 samples) mean (min-max) Group #1 (16 samples) mean ± st. dev. (CV%) Group #2 (55 samples) mean ± st. dev. (CV%)
As 5.92 (0.770-19.1) 14.8 ± 3.3 (21.9) 1.22 ± 0.35 (28.8)
Ba 931 (114–3813) 1090 ± 1020 (93.6) 846 ± 322 (38.1)
Ce 117 (83.3-170) 105 ± 12 (11.4) 121 ± 20 (16.2)
Co 0.695 (0.170-1.28) 0.250 ± 0.068 (27.1) 0.810 ± 0.120 (14.8)
Cr 1.32 (0.120-3.80) 1.46 ± 0.99 (67.7) 1.27 ± 0.85 (66.6)
Cs 4.68 (1.02-18.5) 15.1 ± 1.7 (11.1) 1.89 ± 0.35 (18.6)
Eu 0.734 (0.080-1.23) 0.100 ± 0.018 (18.3) 0.890 ± 0.118 (13.3)
Fe% 1.05 (0.83-1.44) 0.970 ± 0.099 (10.3) 1.07 ± 0.15 (13.7)
Hf 7.51 (5.97-10.2) 7.17 ± 4.12 (9.1) 7.61 ± 3.53 (11.5)
K% 3.42 (0.765-6.06) 3.28 ± 0.57 (17.3) 3.44 ± 1.30 (37.9)
La 53.1 (5.67-62.8) 51.0 ± 13.0 (25.5) 54.6 ± 8.6 (15.8)
Na% 1.87 (0.567-2.82) 2.06 ± 0.85 (41.5) 1.85 ± 0.43 (23.2)
Nd 28.1 (10.1-47.9) 20.3 ± 7.0 (34.7) 29.7 ± 7.5 (25.1)
Ni 11.1 (0.428-25.5) 16.7 11.3 ± 7.5 (66.1)
Rb 154 (58.9-270) 230 ± 21 (9.0) 133 ± 24 (18.1)
Sb 0.283 (0.020-1.11) 1.00 ± 0.14 (14.0) 0.077 ± 0.028 (36.1)
Sc 2.83 (0.890-4.37) 1.16 ± 0.19 (16.0) 3.29 ± 0.47 (14.4)
Se 2.47 (0.320-3.33) 2.62 ± 0.35 (13.2) 2.42 ± 0.44 (18.3)
Sm 6.21 (2.29-8.87) 5.49 ± 1.05 (19.1) 6.47 ± 1.13 (17.5)
Sr 150 (22.5-758) 337 ± 257 (76.2) 124 ± 96 (77.3)
Ta 1.42 (1.02-2.00) 1.70 ± 0.21 (12.1) 1.35 ± 0.21 (15.7)
Th 24.0 (15.1-46.7) 37.7 ± 3.6 (9.6) 20.3 ± 2.6 (12.8)
U 2.36 (0.570-8.61) 5.91 ± 2.10 (38.9) 1.43 ± 0.65 (45.3)
W 4.21 (0.810-10.1) 13.3 ± 1.8 (13.2) 4.65 ± 3.15 (67.7)
Yb 0.037 (0.020-0.060) 0.054 ± 0.005 (9.4) 0.032 ± 0.007 (22.9)
Zn 52.1 (43.4-60.6) 56.8 ± 2.3 (4.1) 50.9 ± 3.3 (6.5)
Zr 2336 (1541-3247) 2100 ± 252 (12.0) 2407 ± 368 (15.3)
  1. Element content (μg g−1, except Fe, K and K expressed as%) of obsidian artefacts (classified as group #1 and group #2) collected during archaeological excavations in Tuscany and analyzed by INAA.