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Table 3 Chemical composition of the samples - Major and minor elements

From: Archaeological and archaeometric study of the glass finds from the ancient harbour of Classe (Ravenna- Italy): new evidence

Group Sample Context Macro-type Type Technique SiO 2 Na 2 O CaO Al 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3 MnO TiO 2 MgO K 2 O P 2 O 5 SO 3 Cl
CL1a D1 Building 6 beaker Is. 96 EPMA 63.71 18.45 6.22 3.07 3.17 1.87 0.60 1.53 0.54 0.10 0.26 1.07
CL1a D3 Building 6 beaker Is. 96 EPMA 65.63 18.66 5.86 2.42 3.12 2.12 0.31 0.97 0.43 0.06 0.06 1.30
CL1a D5 Building 6 beaker Is. 96 XRF+ EPMA 64.30 17.76 5.59 2.97 3.52 1.85 0.62 1.20 0.45 0.14 0.25 1.20
CL1a A2 Building 6 waste waste XRF+ EPMA 64.73 17.71 6.11 3.1 3.4 1.17 0.54 1.37 0.53 0.13 0.21 1.30
CL1a BLS Building 6 waste waste XRF+ EPMA 64.56 16.54 6.05 3.08 3.84 2.08 0.62 1.35 0.50 0.16 0.25 1.09
CL1a CVG Building 6 waste tubes XRF+ EPMA 64.09 16.45 6.15 2.98 4.12 1.83 0.54 1.36 1.08 0.13 0.19 1.26
CL1a PVM Building 6 waste raw chunck XRF+ EPMA 64.83 16.82 6.03 2.94 3.6 1.66 0.55 1.35 0.39 0.13 0.19 1.25
CL1a PVS Building 6 waste raw chunck XRF+ EPMA 64.12 18.34 5.99 3.04 3.19 1.57 0.54 1.54 0.40 0.11 0.29 1.58
CL1a TB Building 6 waste tubes XRF+ EPMA 64.89 16.80 6.18 3.02 3.56 1.64 0.54 1.36 0.95 0.12 0.17 1.41
CL1b D2 Building 6 beaker Is. 96 EPMA 66.18 17.77 6.79 2.84 2.46 1.73 0.44 1.36 0.55 0.05 0.25 0.89
CL1b D8 Building 6 beaker Is. 96/106/109 XRF+ EPMA 64.56 16.87 7.33 2.86 2.89 1.50 0.45 1.21 0.64 0.16 0.26 0.89
CL1b D20 Building 6 beaker Is. 106b EPMA 65.66 17.77 6.08 2.82 2.27 1.54 0.48 1.24 0.54 0.04 0.22 1.02
CL1b D24 Building 6 beaker Is. 109 XRF+ EPMA 63.08 21.17 5.15 2.80 1.83 2.51 0.60 0.93 0.34 0.04 0.16 1.44
CL1b D26 Building 6 beaker Is. 107 EPMA 66.47 18.11 5.79 2.97 1.84 0.13 0.43 1.10 0.40 0.01 0.27 1.48
CL1b BL SCH Building 6 waste waste EPMA 63.94 18.07 6.16 3.01 2.68 1.86 0.45 1.77 0.85 0.13 0.19 1.38
CL1b CVS Building 6 waste tubes XRF+ EPMA 66.04 17.67 4.78 3.07 2.09 2.44 0.69 1.48 0.63 0.05 0.19 1.29
CL1b FD Building 6 waste deformed fragment XRF+ EPMA 67.53 16.08 6.22 3.03 2.40 1.22 0.60 1.47 0.48 0.06 0.13 1.40
CL1b PF Building 6 waste drop EPMA 62.31 18.97 5.86 2.94 2.24 2.32 0.62 1.82 1.09 0.11 0.51 1.49
CL1b SCH Building 6 waste bubbly waste EPMA 63.44 18.70 5.87 2.86 2.11 2.54 0.58 2.13 0.85 0.09 0.25 1.23
CL1b D52 US4381 beaker Is. 106 late EPMA 65.47 16.97 8.17 2.62 1.51 2.06 0.19 1.53 0.73 0.21 0.25 0.95
CL1b D53 US4381 goblet Is. 111? EPMA 64.77 18.67 5.50 3.08 1.98 2.55 0.58 1.49 0.44 0.01 0.20 1.27
CL1b D54 US4381 beaker Is. 96 EPMA 68.63 17.24 5.81 2.42 1.38 2.28 0.25 0.87 0.38 0.03 0.21 1.10
CL1b D56 US4381 beaker Is. 96 EPMA 67.95 17.90 6.01 2.38 1.50 2.25 0.26 0.94 0.40 0.06 0.20 1.25
CL1b PV01 US4381 waste raw chunck EPMA 65.13 20.64 5.92 2.25 1.37 1.98 0.30 1.31 0.32 0.04 0.20 1.67
CL1c D50 US4381 beaker Is. 106b EPMA 65.34 19.35 7.69 2.23 0.81 1.78 0.14 1.00 0.53 0.12 0.33 1.13
CL1c T12 US4381 waste shearing EPMA 65.44 18.47 7.59 2.55 1.05 1.13 0.14 1.31 0.66 0.11 0.22 1.14
CL2a D21 Building 6 beaker Is. 106 EPMA 68.01 16.52 9.92 2.81 0.30 0.03 0.07 0.67 0.86 0.03 0.14 1.08
CL2b C4 Building 6 waste tubes XRF + EPMA 68.21 14.87 9.63 2.94 0.64 0.66 0.09 0.65 1.40 0.20 0.09 1.06
CL2b D58 US4381 beaker Is. 106 late EPMA 68.02 16.39 8.19 2.86 0.33 0.90 0.05 0.54 1.00 0.16 0.18 1.06
CL2a G05 US4381 waste pontil wad EPMA 69.25 15.21 7.91 2.81 0.46 0.03 0.09 0.61 2.46 0.15 0.11 1.17
CL2a T04 US4381 waste shearing EPMA 70.34 16.01 7.87 2.86 0.43 0.03 0.08 0.62 0.82 0.08 0.15 1.03
CL2b T10 US4381 waste shearing EPMA 65.91 15.21 10.57 2.91 0.62 0.89 0.10 0.64 2.03 0.31 0.15 0.50
CL3 D7 Building 6 beaker Is. 109 EPMA 68.76 19.02 5.70 1.96 2.14 0.34 0.12 0.51 0.55 0.02 0.27 0.90
CL3 D10 Building 6 goblet Is. 111 EPMA 68.07 21.10 6.26 1.97 0.65 0.82 0.13 0.77 0.40 0.01 0.29 1.26
CL3 D11 Building 6 goblet Is. 111 EPMA 68.29 18.17 6.93 2.04 0.98 0.77 0.12 0.71 0.43 0.01 0.22 1.07
CL3 D14 Building 6 goblet Is. 111 EPMA 69.05 20.02 6.99 1.56 0.38 0.72 0.09 0.62 0.37 0.00 0.31 1.29
CL3 D16 Building 6 beaker Is. 109 XRF+ EPMA 69.91 19.06 6.16 1.58 0.30 0.50 0.06 0.30 0.41 0.04 0.17 1.73
CL3 D23 Building 6 beaker Is. 109 XRF+ EPMA 71.96 17.39 4.95 1.94 0.61 0.74 0.18 0.49 0.47 0.03 0.12 1.52
CL3 D25 Building 6 beaker Is. 96/106/109 XRF+ EPMA 71.09 17.89 5.55 1.76 0.45 0.75 0.08 0.48 0.36 0.03 0.11 1.59
CL3 A3 Building 6 waste waste XRF+ EPMA 68.15 19.41 6.28 1.84 0.78 0.58 0.12 0.59 0.57 0.04 0.27 1.45
CL3 BLC Building 6 waste waste XRF+ EPMA 67.06 17.42 8.14 2.23 0.96 0.29 0.18 0.94 0.86 0.06 0.35 1.03
CL3 CVC Building 6 waste tubes XRF+ EPMA 68.3 18.97 6.14 1.83 0.82 0.61 0.12 0.61 0.72 0.05 0.33 1.24
CL3 F-D D12 Building 6 waste deformed fragment XRF+ EPMA 67.12 19.74 7.59 1.85 0.67 0.59 0.11 0.60 0.48 0.04 0.17 1.70
CL3 G1 Building 6 waste pontil wad EPMA 66.78 18.57 8.17 1.94 0.65 0.36 0.13 0.84 0.63 0.01 0.36 1.13
CL3 G3 Building 6 waste pontil wad EPMA 68.08 17.85 6.92 2.38 0.26 0.76 0.07 0.40 1.50 0.01 0.36 1.22
CL3 G4 Building 6 waste pontil wad EPMA 67.11 17.63 6.50 2.38 1.25 1.35 0.27 1.00 0.88 0.01 0.36 1.14
CL3 GRA Building 6 waste pontil wad XRF+ EPMA 68.97 19.31 5.89 1.75 0.56 0.83 0.09 0.58 0.84 0.03 0.29 1.32
CL3 M1 Building 6 waste moil EPMA 69.18 18.66 6.80 2.12 0.77 0.98 0.21 0.73 0.42 0.04 0.21 1.28
CL3 PV Building 6 waste raw chunk XRF+ EPMA 66.51 19.80 5.87 2.12 1.41 0.85 0.23 0.81 0.43 0.06 0.24 1.38
CL3 PVA Building 6 waste raw chunk XRF+ EPMA 66.92 17.98 8.16 2.15 0.88 0.29 0.17 0.89 0.65 0.05 0.32 1.34
CL3 PVC Building 6 waste raw chunk XRF+ EPMA 69.04 19.38 6.11 1.77 0.65 0.51 0.1 0.56 0.44 0.04 0.35 1.23
CL3 T-A Building 6 waste shearing XRF+ EPMA 66.52 19.34 8.01 1.99 0.71 0.13 0.15 0.81 0.62 0.04 0.31 1.38
CL3 T-C Building 6 waste shearing EPMA 67.82 19.76 6.50 1.78 0.58 0.52 0.11 0.64 0.44 0.02 0.32 1.19
CL3 D51 US4381 beaker Is. 106c EPMA 67.93 18.16 7.90 1.94 0.86 0.77 0.12 0.71 0.55 0.09 0.24 1.30
CL3 D57 US4381 beaker Is. 106late EPMA 69.06 18.08 6.79 1.77 0.61 0.62 0.11 0.58 0.47 0.08 0.27 1.25
CL3 D59 US4381 beaker Is. 106 late EPMA 67.86 19.18 7.45 1.73 0.61 0.74 0.10 0.65 0.35 0.08 0.29 1.22
CL3 G06 US4381 waste waste EPMA 66.60 21.85 5.75 1.80 0.52 0.96 0.11 0.62 0.30 0.02 0.44 1.23
  1. Major and minor elements are reported in wt%. EPMA indicates that chemical data were collected with this technique only; EPMA+ XRF indicates samples were analysed by XRF for their major, minor and trace elements while Sn, Sb, Cl and S were measured with EPMA. SnO2 and Sb2O3 were always below the EPMA detection limits (0.04 wt%) and are not presented here. n.d. = not detected.