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TableĀ 3 Paint analysis data for Venetian and Ottoman sculpture

From: A multi-technique approach, based on mobile/portable laser instruments, for the in situ pigment characterization of stone sculptures on the island of Crete dating from Venetian and Ottoman period

Object no Paint colour Raman analysis LIBS analysisa
Venetian stone inscriptions (Historical Museum of Crete)
AI86 Black Carbon black,
Calcium carbonate
Ca, Na (s); CN (m)
CN emission indicates the use of a carbon based pigment
AI95 Black Calcium carbonate Ca, Na (s); Cu, Mn, Mg, Pb, Sr (m)
Mn suggests the presence of manganese black
Ottoman stone inscriptions and reliefs (Historical museum of Crete)
AI198 Blue Ultramarine Ca, Na (s); Al, Mg, Si (m); Fe, Ti (w)
Na, Al and Si indicate the presence of ultramarine
White Calcium carbonate Ca (s); Al, Mg (m); Ba, Fe, Na, Si, Ti (w)
Ca-rich paint, most likely calcium carbonate
AI244 Red Red lead Pb (s); Na (m); Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si (w)
Pb-rich red paint, red lead
Yellow Chrome yellow Ca, Cr, (s), Ba, Na, Pb (m), Al, Mg, Si, Fe (w)
Cr and Pb indicate the presence of chrome yellow
Dark green Fluorescence emission Ca, Pb, Na (s); Cr, Ba (m); Al, Cu, Mg, Si, Fe (w)
Cu suggests use of copper-based green pigment
Light green Chrome yellow,
Prussian blue
Ca, Cr, Na (s); Ba, Fe, Pb (m), Al, Mg, Si (w)
Cr and Pb indicate the presence of chrome yellow
White Calcium carbonate Ca (s); Al, Ba, Na, Mg (m); Pb, Cr, Si, Ti (w)
Ca-rich paint, calcium carbonate
Metal foil Not clear spectral bands Ca, Na (s); Cr, Pb, Ba (m); Al, Ag, Au, Cu, Mg, Si (w)
Ag, Au and Cu evidence the use of a gold foil
AI378 Red Red lead Pb (s); Ca, Ba, Na (m), Al, Mg, Si (w)
Pb-rich red paint, red lead
White Calcite, gypsum Ca (s); Ba, Mg, Pb, Na (m); Al (w)
Ca-rich paint, calcium carbonate (calcium sulphate)
Metal foil Fluorescence emission Ca (s); Al, Mg (m); Ag, Au, Cu, Na, Si (w)
Ag, Au and Cu evidence the use of a gold foil
AI0176 Red Fluorescence emission Ca, Ba, Na (s); Pb, Ti, Sr (m); Fe (w).
Pb-rich red paint, red lead
Blue Ultramarine,
Barium sulphate
Ca, Ba, Na (s); Al, Pb, Ti, Sr, Si (m); Fe (w)
Na, Al and Si indicate the presence of ultramarine
Yellow Fluorescence emission Ca, Ba, Na (s); Cr, Pb, Sr (m)
Cr and Pb indicate the presence of chrome yellow
Light green Prussian blue,
Barium sulphate
Ca, Ba, Na (s); Cr, Fe, Pb, Sr (m); Ti (w)
Cr and Pb indicate the presence of chrome yellow
Metal foil Fluorescence emission Ca, Ba, Na (s); CN, Cr, Pb, Sr (m); Ag, Au, Cu (w)
Ag, Au and Cu evidence the use of a gold foil
AI0120 Dark red Not studied Ca, Hg, Na (s); Ba, Cr Pb (m); Mg, Sr (w)
Hg proves the presence of vermilion or cinnabar
Orange Not studied Ca, Na (s); Cr, Pb (m); Ba, Fe, Hg, Mg, Sr (w)
Cr and Pb indicate the presence of chrome yellow, Hg relates to the presence of low quantities of vermilion or cinnabar
Red stone Not studied Ca, Hg (s); Al, CN, Fe, Pb (m); Mg, Sr, Ti (w)
Hg proves the presence of vermilion or cinnabar
Black stone Not studied Ba, Ca, CN, Na(s); Al, Fe, Mg, Sr (m); Cr, Pb, Ti(w)
CN emission indicates the use of a carbon based pigment
Marble fragment (St. Catherine collection)
AG1 Red Red lead Ca, Pb (s); CN, Na (m); Mg, Cu (w)
Pb-rich red paint, red lead
Dark green Weak Raman signal Cu (s); Ca, Pb, Na (m); Mg, Ag (w)
Cu suggests use of copper-based green pigment
Black Red lead (weak signal) Ca, Pb (s); CN, Na (m); Al, Ag, Cu, Mg (w)
Pb-rich red paint, red lead
Metal foil Red lead (weak signal) Ca (s); Pb, Ba, Na (m); Ag, Au, Cu, Mg, Fe (w)
Ag, Au and Cu evidence the use of a gold foil
  1. Elements in bold, italicized characters relate to main pigment in the investigated paint
  2. aEmission intensity based on major analytical lines are classified as: strong (s), medium (m) or weak (w)