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Table 4 Paint analysis data from the campaigns on the church door frames

From: A multi-technique approach, based on mobile/portable laser instruments, for the in situ pigment characterization of stone sculptures on the island of Crete dating from Venetian and Ottoman period

Paint colour Raman analysis LIBS analysisa
Valsamonero Monastery
Red (mantle of Virgin Mary) Not studied Fe (s), Al, Ca, Mg (m); Mn, Na, Ti (w)
Fe, Mn, detected in high and very low concentration respectively, indicate possible use of umber
Red (parts of the architrave) Not studied Fe, Ca (s); Al, Mg, Na, Ti (w)
Fe-rich red paint, ferric oxide (hematite)
White Not studied Ca (s); Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Ti (w)
Ca-rich white paint, most likely calcium carbonate (or sulphate)
Black Not studied Ca, CN (s); Mg, Na (m)
CN emission indicates the use of a carbon based pigment
Church of St. George
Light blue Ultramarine,
Barium sulphate
Ba, Ca, Na (s); Al, Fe, Mg, Sr, Zn (m); Si, Ti (w)
Na, Al and Si indicate the use of ultramarine
Fe might relate to the use of Prussian blue
Dark blue Carbon black Ca, Mg, Na (s); Αl, CN, Sr (m); Fe, Ti (w)
CN emission indicates the use of a carbon based pigment
Red Hematite Ba, Ca, Fe, Na, Ti, Zn (s); Αl, Mg, Sr (m)
Fe-rich red paint, ferric oxide (hematite)
Brown Weak Raman signal Ba, Ca, Fe, Mn, Na (s); Al, Mg, Sr, Zn (m); Ti (w);
Cr (1st pulse, m)
Fe, Mn, both detected in high concentration, evidence a mixture of manganese black (or brown) and ferric oxide (hematite)
Yellow Barium sulphate Ba, Ca, Na, Cr, Zn (s); Al, Fe, Mg, Sr, Pb, Ti, (m)
Cr, Pb, Fe imply the use of chrome yellow and possibly yellow ochre (hydrous ferric oxide)
White Calcium carbonate Ca (s); Mg, Na (m)
Ca-rich white paint, most likely calcium carbonate
  1. Elements in bold, italicized characters relate to main pigment in the investigated paint
  2. aEmission intensity based on major analytical lines are classified as: strong (s), medium (m) or weak (w)