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Table 3 SEM-EDX results for the black materials on the surface of the construction materials used in the Khmer temples

From: Precipitation of manganese oxides on the surface of construction materials in the Khmer temples, Cambodia

Temple Sample no.   Mn ± s.d. (%) Fe ± s.d. (%) Na ± s.d. (%) Mg ± s.d. (%) Al ± s.d. (%) Si ± s.d. (%) K ± s.d. (%) Ca ± s.d. (%) Ti ± s.d. (%) P ± s.d. (%) S ± s.d. (%) Cl ± s.d. (%)
Bayon 3401 Blackened area 28.55 ± 15.73 10.59 ± 7.74 0.52 ± 0.47 5.71 ± 4.21 6.41 ± 4.02 22.64 ± 14.48 1.42 ± 3.23 1.67 ± 0.92 0.83 ± 0.48
Sandstone 0.37 ± 0.18 5.22 ± 1.26 3.55 ± 1.19 2.60 ± 0.43 8.67 ± 2.13 39.08 ± 4.96 2.41 ± 1.24 1.67 ± 0.37 0.37 ± 0.14 0.31 ± 0.38
Ratio 78.01 2.03 0.15 2.19 0.74 0.58 0.59 1.00 2.65
East Mebon 3405 Blackened area 21.67 ± 5.91 2.76 ± 0.91 0.24 ± 0.09 10.59 ± 3.41 29.26 ± 2.78 0.88 ± 0.12 0.57 ± 0.22 1.03 ± 0.52 0.30 ± 0.84 0.16 ± 0.41 0.52 ± 0.30
Laterite 0.18 ± 0.13 28.87 ± 2.89 0.09 ± 0.05 16.24 ± 0.46 20.40 ± 0.90 0.05 ± 0.09 0.09 ± 0.12 0.97 ± 0.23 0.59 ± 0.25 0.32 ± 0.19 0.12 ± 0.15
Ratio 123.13 0.10 2.59   0.65 1.43 19.04 6.06 1.06 0.51 0.51 4.38
Pre Rup 3406 Blackened area 6.81 ± 2.66 2.29 ± 2.63 0.11 ± 0.04 0.21 ± 0.05 4.20 ± 2.29 33.84 ± 4.41 0.34 ± 0.06 0.28 ± 0.03 0.19 ± 0.25 0.05 ± 0.12 0.27 ± 0.28 0.05 ± 0.12
Laterite 0.22 ± 0.11 29.80 ± 2.07 0.14 ± 0.03 10.63 ± 0.75 15.00 ± 1.89 0.42 ± 0.05 0.02 ± 0.05 0.02 ± 0.04 0.06 ± 0.07
Ratio 31.54 0.08 0.81 0.40 2.26 0.44 2.17 15.00 0.96
3407 Blackened area 12.36 ± 4.45 4.67 ± 3.47 2.80 ± 1.43 3.14 ± 2.30 7.48 ± 1.89 20.84 ± 6.57 1.82 ± 1.96 0.88 ± 0.44 0.88 ± 0.23 1.50 ± 0.72
Sandstone 0.03 ± 0.04 1.80 ± 0.45 3.44 ± 1.06 1.21 ± 0.38 7.10 ± 1.31 32.90 ± 2.26 3.77 ± 2.13 0.40 ± 0.34 0.21 ± 0.00 0.88 ± 0.13
Ratio 386.38 2.59 0.81 2.60 1.05 0.63 0.48 2.19 1.71
Ta Keo 3408 Blackened area 18.29 ± 10.23 10.73 ± 5.68 0.18 ± 0.12 12.79 ± 3.00 14.17 ± 1.65 1.23 ± 0.51 0.67 ± 0.38 1.00 ± 0.62 0.75 ± 0.60
Laterite 0.56 ± 0.14 43.03 ± 0.96 0.14 ± 0.08 9.86 ± 0.66 8.51 ± 0.43 0.27 ± 0.23
Ratio 32.78 0.25 1.28 1.30 1.66 2.46
Phnom Krom 3409 Blackened area 10.07 ± 3.63 4.28 ± 5.79 0.16 ± 0.09 19.28 ± 2.58 10.28 ± 3.57 2.39 ± 1.07 0.85 ± 0.39 0.53 ± 0.16
Laterite 0.18 ± 0.17 21.33 ± 5.03 0.08 ± 0.05 6.77 ± 0.82 24.56 ± 4.80 0.40 ± 0.09 0.15 ± 0.13
Ratio 56.57 0.20 1.93 2.85 0.42 5.57
Wat Athvea 3410 Blackened area 7.34 ± 1.26 3.30 ± 1.25 0.19 ± 0.15 9.42 ± 1.78 31.70 ± 3.05 0.63 ± 0.25 0.38 ± 0.20 0.48 ± 0.29
Laterite 0.33 ± 0.27 3.05 ± 0.29 0.10 ± 0.04 12.42 ± 0.28 32.74 ± 0.27 0.68 ± 0.10 0.39 ± 0.21 0.37 ± 0.19 0.30 ± 0.00
Ratio 22.24 1.08 1.88   0.76 0.97 0.91 0.99 1.31    
Pr. Neang Khmau 3402 Blackened area 4.91 ± 3.01 52.07 ± 8.03 0.27 ± 0.29 5.51 ± 2.09 3.22 ± 1.56 0.70 ± 0.42 0.87 ± 0.13 0.51 ± 0.23 0.89 ± 0.77
Laterite 0.25 ± 0.18 54.92 ± 4.59 0.11 ± 0.05 4.16 ± 0.20 6.23 ± 1.70 0.65 ± 0.07 0.40 ± 0.04 0.03 ± 0.07
Ratio 19.79 0.95 2.39   1.32 0.52    1.09 2.18 15.00  
Pr. Chrap 3403 Blackened area 31.72 ± 13.36 6.36 ± 15.86 0.35 ± 0.29 0.41 ± 0.18 6.05 ± 1.78 9.21 ± 4.00 1.44 ± 0.61 0.45 ± 0.19 0.78 ± 0.40 0.46 ± 0.31 0.33 ± 0.18 0.40 ± 0.21
Laterite 0.31 ± 0.10 51.78 ± 0.86 0.20 ± 0.15 6.09 ± 0.23 2.43 ± 0.24 0.05 ± 0.06 0.10 ± 0.13 0.89 ± 0.05 1.17 ± 0.10 0.05 ± 0.06 0.34 ± 0.10
Ratio 102.99 0.12 1.77 0.99 3.78 27.66 4.32 0.87 0.39 6.58 1.19
Pr. Banteay Pir Chan 3404 Blackened area 10.85 ± 6.22   0.62 ± 0.69 11.05 ± 2.77 12.03 ± 4.81 0.92 ± 0.42 0.32 ± 0.04 1.30 ± 0.42 0.99 ± 0.31 0.53 ± 0.34
Laterite 1.03 ± 0.79 24.30 ± 12.48 0.67 ± 0.56 9.09 ± 1.70 8.64 ± 1.25 1.10 ± 0.44 0.96 ± 0.20
Ratio 10.55 0.99 0.93 1.22 1.39 1.19 1.04
Sambor Prei Kuk S1 tower 3411 Blackened area 3.87 ± 2.93 1.50 ± 0.73 0.39 ± 0.18 0.81 ± 0.23 6.10 ± 1.51 33.27 ± 9.41 1.14 ± 0.24 0.71 ± 0.82 2.73 ± 2.04 1.59 ± 1.42 0.46 ± 0.27
Bricks 0.09 ± 0.06 0.37 ± 0.46 0.32 ± 0.12 2.46 ± 0.39 44.84 ± 1.11 0.67 ± 0.24 0.39 ± 0.21 0.24 ± 0.20
Ratio 45.05 4.01 1.21 2.48 0.74 1.71 4.07 1.90 
3412 Blackened area 8.71 ± 3.19 0.96 ± 3.24 2.95 ± 1.70 0.66 ± 1.28 3.98 ± 3.82 13.63 ± 11.33 1.18 ± 1.62 4.37 ± 2.71 5.62 ± 3.63 4.28 ± 1.05
Sandstone 0.22 ± 0.10 2.46 ± 0.63 3.39 ± 0.93 0.93 ± 0.22 6.88 ± 1.55 36.51 ± 2.13 2.97 ± 1.08 0.47 ± 0.28 0.33 ± 0.00
Ratio 38.88 0.39 0.87 0.71 0.58 0.37 0.40 9.26
Sambor Prei Kuk C1 tower 3413 Blackened area 48.41 ± 1.69 0.30 ± 0.19 4.18 ± 0.57 0.54 ± 0.50 3.84 ± 1.30 1.90 ± 0.16 2.84 ± 0.23 0.39 ± 0.14 0.22 ± 0.20
Bricks 0.09 ± 0.07 1.19 ± 0.22 0.30 ± 0.09 0.13 ± 0.11 3.66 ± 0.81 45.76 ± 2.14 1.26 ± 0.17 0.07 ± 0.14 0.43 ± 0.06 0.49 ± 0.00 0.36 ± 0.21
Ratio 562.93 0.98 31.18 0.15 0.08 1.50 40.54 0.61
3414 Blackened area 16.12 ± 6.89 2.05 ± 3.80 0.74 ± 1.49 6.23 ± 1.78 3.06 ± 2.14 20.60 ± 8.45 1.68 ± 1.54 3.17 ± 4.48 1.49 ± 4.52 0.38 ± 0.20 0.51 ± 0.20
Sandstone 1.06 ± 0.44 1.55 ± 1.90 3.72 ± 3.52 1.21 ± 0.47 7.34 ± 3.96 36.99 ± 6.09 1.68 ± 1.11 1.59 ± 2.02 0.20 ± 0.25
Ratio 15.21 1.32 0.20 5.16 0.42 0.56 1.00 2.00 7.46
  1. Each analysis was conducted on a polished cross section of the sample