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Table 1 Summary of the results from Raman and XRF analyses of pigments on selected Haku Maki prints from the “Poem” series

From: Characterization of Haku Maki prints from the “Poem” series using light-based techniques

Poem” print Color Raman results XRFa Notes
70–70 (1970) Paper Ti, Ca, (Fe, S) Likely titanium white and chalk filler
Black Aniline black, carbon black? Cr, Cu, Ca, Ti, (S, Cl, Fe) Black layer underlies all other colors
Glossy black Strong fluorescence Cr, Cu, Ca, Ti, (S, Cl, Fe, Co) Co appears characteristic of glossy black
Red PR3, BaSO4 Pb, Cr, Ba, S, Mn, Cu, Ca, (K, Fe, Al) Mn and Pb may indicate use of siccative
Red seal Molybdate orange, PR22, CaCO3, PR48:3? Pb, Cr, Cu, Ca, Ti, (K, Fe, Mo, Cl) PR48:3 features appear as trace Raman signal
70–90 (1970) Paper Ti, Ca, (Fe) Likely titanium white and chalk filler
Black Aniline black, carbon black? Cr, Cu, Ca, Fe, Cl, S, Ti Black layer underlies all other colors
Blue Phthalocyanine, Prussian, and ultramarine blues Zn, (Fe, Cu, Cr, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, S) Zinc white may be present, although not detected by Raman
Red PR3, BaSO4 Pb, Cr, Ba, S, Mn, Cu, Ca, (Al, K, Fe) Mn and Pb may indicate use of siccative
Red seal Molybdate orange, PR48:3 Cr, Pb, Cu, Ba, Ca, (Fe, Cl, Mo, Cd)  
71–29 (1970) Paper Ca, Ti, (Fe, Cu) Likely titanium white and chalk filler
Black Aniline black, carbon black? Cr, Cu, Fe, Ca, K, Cl, S, Ti, (Al, Si, Pb, Zr) Black layer underlies all other colors
Dark green Chrome yellow, Prussian blue Pb, Cr, Fe, (Cu, Ti, Ca, Al) Common mixture known as chrome green
Light green Chrome yellow, Prussian blue Pb, Cr, Fe, (Cu, Ti, Ca, Al, Zn) Common mixture known as chrome green
Yellow Chrome yellow Pb, Cr, (Cu, Ba, Ca, Al, Fe)  
Orange Chrome yellow Pb, Cr, (Cu, Ca, Ba, Al, Fe, Mo) Predominantly monoclinic phase PY34, Mo indicates presence of molybdate orange
Red PR3, BaSO4 Cr, Cu, Ba, S, Ca, Pb, Fe, (Al, K)  
Red seal Molybdate orange, PR48:3, iron oxide? Pb, Cr, Cu, Ca, Ba, (Fe, Mo, Cd, Cl) Possible traces of iron oxide
71–61 (1971) Paper Ca, Ti, (Fe) Likely titanium white and chalk filler
Black Carbon black, Prussian blue Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn, (S) Black layer underlies all other colors
Glossy black Strong fluorescence Cr, Cu, Ca, Ti, (Fe, Co, Cl, S) Co appears characteristic of glossy black
Light green Barium chromate, viridian Ba, Cr, Pb, (Ca, Fe, Cu, Al) Possible Pb drier or lead white underneath the green paint
Medium green Chrome yellow, Prussian blue Pb, Cr, Fe, (Cu, Ca, Ti, Al) Common mixture known as chrome green
Dark green Chrome yellow, phthalocyanine blue Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ba, Si, (Al, K, Ca)  
Silvery white Strong fluorescence Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn, (Al) Possibly titanium white with chalk and zinc white
Brown Strong fluorescence Fe, Cu, Cr, (Ca, Ti, Si, S, K) Possibly iron oxide pigment
Red seal Molybdate orange, PR48:3 Ca, Ti, Ba, Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, (Mo, Cd)  
  1. a Major, minor, (trace) intensities