Skip to main content

Table 1 Paint layers found in the clock west face/VN1 (over a copper plate) and east face/VN2 (over an iron plate)

From: Spectroscopic analysis used to uncover the original paint colour of the Helsinki Government Palace tower clock faces

Clock face Colour SEM-EDS Raman bands (cm−1) and assignments
VN1/VN2 Red Fe and Ca Hematite (224, 290 cm−1), red lead (123, 150, 313, 390, 548 cm−1)
VN1/VN2 Black C Carbon black (1345, 1585 cm−1)
VN1/VN2 Red Al, Si and Fe Hematite (224, 290 cm−1), red lead (123, 150, 313, 390, 548 cm−1)
VN1/VN2 White Ti, Ba, Pb and S Lead white (1050 cm−1)
VN1/VN2 Grey Ti and Ba mainly, together with S, Pb, Fe and Cr Prussian blue (274, 532, 2089, 2117, 2153 cm−1), phthalocyanine blue (745, 1526 cm−1), titanium white (446, 609 cm−1) and carbon black (1345, 1585 cm−1)
VN1/VN2 Blue Ca, Mg and Fe Prussian blue (274, 532, 2089, 2117, 2153 cm−1), phthalocyanine blue (745, 1526 cm−1)
VN1/VN2 Yellow Cr, K and Zn Zinc chromate (342, 871, 891, 940 cm−1), lead oxide (142 cm−1), barium sulphate (986 cm−1)
VN1/VN2 White Ti, Ba and S Titanium white (446, 609 cm−1), barium sulphate (986 cm−1)
VN1 Light blue Ti, Ba, Cu and S Titanium white (446, 609 cm−1), barium sulphate (986 cm−1), phthalocyanine blue (745, 1526 cm−1)