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Table 1 Relationship between extraction protocols used and painting techniques hypothesized

From: What do we know of Roman wall painting technique? Potential confounding factors in ancient paint media analysis

Research groupa Type of work Provenance Date No. of samples Extractor yield (%) (dried extract/ scraped paint) Painting technique References
1 Wall painting Pompeii First century AD 2 0.04–0.02 (estimate) Wheatpaste-based paint [11]
Wall painting Liternum, Campania First century AD 1 0.04–0.02 Wheatpaste-based paint [12]
Wall painting Pompeii Four Pompeian styles third to second century BC to first century AD 4 0.07–0.01 Wheatpaste-based paint [13, 14]
2 Wall painting Ampurias, Cartagena, Baelo Claudia First century BC to second century AD 8 25.58–14.34 Beeswax emulsion [15]
Wall painting Mérida Second century AD 6 No data Beeswax emulsion [16]
Complutum Third century AD 2
Marsala Third century AD 4
3 Wall painting Herculaneum Before 79 AD 4 No data Egg tempera: 2 samples
Undetermined: 2 samples
[17]
Painted wooden ceiling Herculaneum Before 79 AD 17 No data Egg tempera [18]
Wall painting Pylos, Mycenas Before 1180 BC 23 No data Egg tempera: 11 samples
Egg + glue tempera: 4 samples
Egg + gum + starch/honey? Tempera: 4 samples
Egg + gum tempera: 1 sample
Animal glue tempera: 1 sample
Undetermined: 2 samples
[19]
Painted alabaster sarcophagus Tarquinia, Etruria Fourth century BC 1 No data Egg tempera [20]
Wall painting Sarteano, Etruria Fourth century BC 9 0.06–0.01 Egg tempera [21]
4 Wall painting Herculaneum No data 11 No data Fresco [3]
Wall painting Pompeii First century AD 4 No data Fresco [23]
  1. aResearch teams sharing members