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Table 1 List of elements identified with FE-SEM-EDX in the different layers

From: The young Van Dyck’s fingerprint: a technical approach to assess the authenticity of a disputed painting

Sample Layers Elements detected Pigments and fillers implied
S1–S3 Ground Ca, Fe, Al, Si, Pb, K, Hg Calcite, iron- and silica-rich red earths, lead white and vermilion
S1–S3 Priming Pb, Ca Lead white and calcite
S2 Red cloak L1 Ca, Fe, Al, Si, Pb, K Calcite, iron- and silica-rich red earths and lead white
L2 Ca, Fe, Al, Si, Pb, K, Hg Calcite, iron- and silica-rich red eaths, lead white and vermilion
L3 Ca, Fe, Al, Si, P, S, K Red lake and iron- and silica-rich red earths
S3 Blue sky Ca, K, Fe, Co, Ni, As, Al, Si, Pb Calcite, lead white and smalt
S1 Flesh tones (shadow) Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Al, Si, Pb, K, Hg Calcite, lead white, iron- and silica-rich red earths, manganese-based brown earths and vermilion
  1. The major elements identified are indicated in italic