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Table 1 Summary of the results of FTIR, Raman and HPLC analyses of samples taken from Terracottas A–C

From: A technical step forward in the integration of visible-induced luminescence imaging methods for the study of ancient polychromy

Sample Material analysed Analytical results
FTIR Raman HPLC
Terracotta A—statuette of a woman with duck and conch shell (1846,0925.34)
A1
Purple pigment
Pink particles Amorphous hydrated alumina (attributed to the lake substrate)   Purpurin, pseudopurpurin/munjistin (attributed to organic colorants derived from madder, likely from Rubia spp.)
Blue particles   Egyptian blue  
White particles Kaolinite (attributed to the ground layer)   
A2
White pigment/ground
White particles Kaolinite (attributed to the ground layer)   
A3
Blue pigment
Blue particles Egyptian blue
Quartz
Calcite
Egyptian blue  
A4 and A5
Red/orange pigment
Red and yellow particles Red Ochre
Quartz
Gypsum
Hematite (red particles)
Goethite (yellow particles)
 
White particles Kaolinite (attributed to the ground layer)   
Terracotta Bgroup of two female figures sitting on a couch (1885,0316.1)
B1
White pigment/ground
White particles Kaolinite
Alunite (attributed to the ground layer)
Gypsum
  
B2
Red/orange pigment
Deep red particles   Cinnabar  
Red/orange particles Iron oxide
Quartz
Hematite  
White particles Kaolinite
Alunite (attributed to the ground layer)
Gypsum
  
B3
Blue pigment
Blue particles Egyptian blue Egyptian blue  
B4
Flesh tone pigment
Red particles   Hematite  
White particles Kaolinite
Alunite (attributed to the ground layer)
Gypsum
  
B5
Pink pigment
Pink particles Amorphous hydrated alumina (attributed to the lake substrate)   Purpurin, pseudopurpurin/munjistin (attributed to organic colorants derived from madder, likely from Rubia spp.)
White particles Kaolinite
Alunite (attributed to the ground layer)
  
B6
Red/orange pigment
Red particles Red ochre Hematite  
Yellow particles Goethite Goethite  
Black particles   Amorphous carbon  
White particles Kaolinite
Alunite (attributed to the ground layer)
  
B7
Black pigment
Black particles   Amorphous carbon  
White particles Quartz
Kaolinite (attributed to the ground layer)
  
Terracotta Coinochoe in the form of a female head (1846,0925.26.a)
C1
White pigment
Blue particles Egyptian blue   
White particles Gypsum
Kaolinite (attributed to the ground layer)
  
C2
Red/brown pigment
Dark red particles   Cinnabar  
White particles Calcite
Gypsum
Kaolinite (attributed to the ground layer)
  
C3
Purple pigment
Pink particles Amorphous hydrated alumina (attributed to the lake substrate)   Purpurin, pseudopurpurin/munjistin (attributed to organic colorants derived from madder, likely from Rubia spp.)
Flavokermesic acid (attributed to organic colorant from an insect source)
Blue particles Egyptian Blue   
White particles Gypsum (attributed to the ground layer)   
C4
Blue pigment
Blue Particles Egyptian Blue   
White particles Gypsum (attributed to the ground layer)   
C5
White/ground
White particles Calcite
Gypsum
Kaolinite (attributed to the ground layer)
  
C6
Pink pigment
Deep red particles   Cinnabar  
White particles Calcite
Gypsum (attributed to the ground layer)
  
C7
Dark purple (blackened red) pigment
Deep red particles   Cinnabar  
White particles Calcite
Gypsum
Kaolinite (attributed to the ground layer)
Quartz
  
  1. Sample locations are detailed Figs. 1, 2, 3