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Table 3 Occurrences of zinc sulphate as an additive in National Gallery paintings (chronological order)

From: New insights into the materials of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Netherlandish paintings in the National Gallery, London

Artist Painting Date Location of zinc as a drier in the painting
Netherlandish paintings
 Jan van Eyck Portrait of Giovanni(?) Arnolfini and his Wife (NG186), oil on oak 1434 Arnolfini’s purple robe, with ultramarine and red lake [5]
 Jan van Eyck Portrait of Margaret van Eyck (GRO0162), Groeningemuseum, Bruges, oil on oak 1439 Shadows on Margaret’s red robe, with red lake, a little ultramarine and black; black background [5]
French paintings
 François Quesnel Portrait of a Lady (NG2617), oil on oak About 1575 Pinkish priming, with lead white and a little red lead (SEM–EDX detected potassium in conjunction with zinc sulphate)
German paintings
 Stephan Lochner Saints Matthew, Catherine of Alexandria and John the Evangelist (NG705), oil on oak About 1450 Saint Catherine’s red robe, with red lake (zinc sulphate and zinc soaps confirmed by ATR-FTIR imaging) [24, 25]
 Master of Liesborn The Adoration of the Kings (NG258), oil on oak Probably 1470–80 Red drapery in the top left corner, with red lake
 Lucas Cranach the Elder Portrait of a Man, probably Johann Feige (NG1925) 1524 Black background (SEM–EDX detected potassium in conjunction with zinc sulphate)
 Lucas Cranach the Elder Portrait of a Woman (NG291), oil on beech 1525–7 Black underpaint for the skirt of the red dress
Italian paintings
 Garofalo The Virgin and Child with Saints Dominic and Catherine of Siena (NG3102), oil on wood About 1499–1502 Red curtain, with red lake [25]
 Lorenzo Costa and Gianfrancesco Maineri The Virgin and Child Enthroned between a Soldier Saint, and Saint John the Baptist (La Pala Strozzi) (NG1119), oil on wood About 1498–1500 Red paint of drapery in the first version of the composition beneath the surface, with red lake; brown paint on grisaille medallions on the throne, with lead white, earth pigments and black
 Titian The Flight into Egypt (inv. CE245), State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg c. 1507 Pale pink paint from the first underlying composition, with lead white and a little red lake [23, p. 35]
 Titian Christ and the Adulteress (inv. 181), Glasgow Museums c. 1508–10 Red underlayer of the Pharisee’s robe, left edge (with vermilion), and in the brown layer beneath it (with lead white and earth pigments); pink underlayer of the adulteress’s dress (with lead white and a little red lake). SEM–EDX detected potassium in conjunction with zinc sulphate; ATR-FTIR imaging indicated two different zinc sulphates, one with potassium and one without, as well as zinc soaps [23, pp. 41–2]
 Titian Portrait of Gerolamo (?) Barbarigo (NG1944), oil on canvas About 1510 Pale grey priming, with lead white, lamp black and dolomite (SEM–EDX detected potassium in conjunction with zinc sulphate. ATR-FTIR imaging indicated two different zinc sulphates, one with potassium and one without, as well as zinc soaps) [23, p. 15]
 Titian Portrait of a Lady (‘La Schiavona’) (NG5385), oil on canvas About 1510–12 Off-white priming, with lead white, lamp black and dolomite (SEM–EDX detected potassium in conjunction with zinc sulphate) [23, p. 61]
 Giovanni Battista Bertucci the Elder The Incredulity of Saint Thomas (NG1051), oil on wood Probably about 1500–15 Donor’s red cloak, with red lake (SEM–EDX detected potassium in conjunction with zinc sulphate; ATR-FTIR imaging confirmed zinc soaps in addition)
 Giovanni Battista Bertucci the Elder The Virgin and Child in Glory (NG282), oil on wood Perhaps 1512–16 Orange drapery of angel, with arsenic sulphide pigments and earth pigments); mordant for the gold leaf of Christ’s halo, with lead white, lead–tin yellow, red lead, vermilion, earth pigments and a little verdigris; Virgin’s red dress, in lower layers with red lake; seated angel’s red cloak, with red lake, lead white (SEM–EDX detected potassium in conjunction with zinc sulphate)
Dutch paintings
 Johannes Vermeer A Young Woman standing at a Virginal (NG1383), oil on canvas About 1670–2 Beige ground layer, with lead white, chalk, earth pigments, bone black [26]
 Jan van Huysum Flowers in a Terracotta Vase (NG796), oil on canvas 1736–7 Beige ground layer, with lead white, earth pigments, black