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Table 5 Occurrences of smalt in Netherlandish and French sixteenth-century paintings in the National Gallery, in chronological order, with quantitative elemental analysis (weight% oxide) and Co:As ratio (atomic%)

From: New insights into the materials of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Netherlandish paintings in the National Gallery, London

Artist, painting and date Location of smalt Na2O Al2O3 SiO2 K2O CaO FeO CoO NiO As2O3 Bi2O3 Co/As at.%
Follower of Jan van Scorel A Man with Pansies and a Skull (NG1036), about 1535 Purple sleeves, mixed with fluorite, lead white and azurite _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Master of the Prodigal Son, Pietà (NG266), about 1550 Virgin’s blue cloak _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Pieter Breughel the Elder, The Adoration of the Kings (NG3556), 1564 Virgin’s blue cloak and sky (with lead white) 0.3 0.2 59.8 15.9 3.7 6.7 7.7 0.7 3.6 1.3 2.8
Joachim Beuckelaer, The Four Elements: Earth (NG6585), 1569 Beige (discoloured) paint of apron of woman in background 0.2 0.6 69.8 11.3 0.4 3.5 5.1 0.6 7.5 1.2 0.9
Joachim Beuckelaer. The Four Elements: Water (NG6586), 1569 Greyish (discoloured) sky, with lead white 0.2 0.6 77.0 2.8 1.0 2.7 4.5 0.5 10.0 0.7 0.6
Joachim Beuckelaer, The Four Elements: Air (NG6587), 1570 Greyish (discoloured) paint on the sleeve of the woman at the left 0.5 0.2 72.3 2.5 1.9 3.6 4.9 0.9 11.5 1.6 0.6
Joachim Beuckelaer, The Four Elements: Fire (NG6588), 1570 Greyish (discoloured) sky, with lead white, greyish paint on sleeve of woman at the left _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
François Quesnel, Portrait of a Lady (NG2617), about 1575 Pink dress; underpaint (with lead white, red lake), upper layer (with red lake) 0.1 0.5 72.0 3.9 1.2 2.5 4.8 0.9 11.9 2.4 0.5
Follower of Marten de Vos, A Little Girl with a Basket of Cherries (NG6161), probably 1575–80 Blue dress, on top of underpaint containing indigo 0.3 1.5 70.4 1.3 0.5 2.9 5.2 0.4 16.3 1.2 0.4
Frans Pourbus the Elder, Portrait of Dom Andreas Boulengier (NG6412), about 1580 Brown background, with red earth, yellow earth, black and some red lake in underpaint, and as the main component in the upper layer, with red lake and black 0.1 0.5 72.0 0.9 3.4 3.8 4.7 0.7 11.1 2.8 0.6