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Table 6 Occurrences of mineral copper sulphate pigment in sixteenth-century Netherlandish paintings in the in the National Gallery

From: New insights into the materials of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Netherlandish paintings in the National Gallery, London

Artist Date Location of mineral copper sulphate pigment on the painting Identification method
Gerard David, Canon Bernardijn Salviati and Three Saints (NG1045) After 1501 Brownish-green of the trees at the top left; green mineral pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate, probably some malachite, and some potassium aluminium silicate (Al, Si, K), mixed with lead white and lead–tin yellow, with a green verdigris glaze at the surface SEM–EDX
Gerard David, Lamentation (NG1078) 1515–23 Bright green highlight on the tree in the middle distance; green mineral pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate (some of which contains a little potassium) and probably some malachite, mixed with lead–tin yellow and lead white SEM–EDX
Quinten Massys, An Old Woman (‘The Ugly Duchess’) (NG5769) About 1513 Green background; green mineral pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate, with a small amount of malachite and associated alumino-silicates (Al, Si) in the underpaint, mixed with lead white and lead–tin yellow. Thin verdigris glaze applied on top in the shadows SEM–EDX
Quinten Massys, The Crucifixion (NG715) About 1515 Green dress of the woman at the right; green mineral pigment composed of copper sulphate in the greyish-green underpaint, mixed with lead white, lead–tin yellow, some black, and a little azurite. (Upper layers contain verdigris) SEM–EDX
Workshop of Goossen van der Weyden, The Visitation of the Virgin to Saint Elizabeth (NG1082) About 1516 Landscape and trees; green mineral pigment composed mainly of copper sulphate with some alumino-silicate (Al, Si) and probably malachite, mixed with lead white, lead–tin yellow and sometimes black and azurite SEM–EDX
Workshop of Goossen van der Weyden, The Flight into Egypt (NG1084) About 1516 Green paint of the landscape and trees; green mineral copper green pigment composed mainly of copper sulphate with some alumino-silicate (Al, Si) and probably malachite, mixed with lead white, lead–tin yellow and sometimes black and azurite SEM–EDX
Workshop of Joachim Patinir, Saint Jerome in a Rocky Landscape (NG4826) About 1515 Green paint of the landscape; green mineral pigment composed mainly of copper sulphate with some alumino-silicate (Al, Si) and probably malachite; mixed with lead white and lead–tin yellow in lighter greens SEM–EDX
Follower of Joachim Patinir, Landscape with the Rest on the Flight into Egypt (NG3115) About 1518–20 Green paint of the landscape; green mineral pigment composed mainly of copper sulphate with some alumino-silicate (Al, Si) and probably malachite, mixed with varying proportions of lead white, lead–tin yellow and azurite SEM–EDX
Albert Cornelis, The Magdalen in a Landscape (NG2585) About 1520 Green paint of the landscape and trees; green mineral pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate, some malachite, potassium aluminium silicate (Al, Si, K) and quartz (Si), mixed with lead white and lead–tin yellow SEM–EDX, Raman microscopy, FTIR microscopy (trans. mode)
Albert Cornelis and Associates, The Virgin and Child in a Landscape (NG1864) Probably early 1520s Green foliage in the landscape; green mineral pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate with some malachite, mixed with lead white and lead–tin yellow SEM–EDX, ATR-FTIR imaging
Workshop of Albert Cornelis, The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne (NG1089) Possibly about 1520 Green pant of the landscape; green mineral pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate, some malachite SEM–EDX, ATR-FTIR imaging
Bernaert van Orley, The Virgin and Child in a Landscape (NG714) About 1525 Green paint of the landscape and trees; green mineral pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate, some malachite, potassium aluminium silicate (Al, Si, K) and quartz (Si), mixed with lead white and lead–tin yellow SEM–EDX
Jan Gossaert (Jean Gossart), A Man holding a Glove (NG946) About 1530–32 Green background; underpaint contains green mineral pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate, with a little malachite, mixed with some lead white and lead–tin yellow (glazed with a thin layer of verdigris) SEM–EDX FTIR microscopy (trans. mode)
Follower of Jan van Scorel, A Man with Pansies and a Skull (NG1036) About 1535 Green background; green mineral pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate, with a little malachite and quartz, mixed with lead–tin yellow and lead white SEM–EDX
Marten van Heemskerck, The Virgin and Saint John the Evangelist (NG6508.1) About 1540 Saint John’s green drapery; underpaint contains green mineral pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate, with a little malachite, mixed with lead white (glazed with verdigris) SEM–EDX; ATR-FTIR imaging
Netherlandish, A Woman with Prayer Beads (NG1860) 1540s Green background; underpaint contains blue-green mineral copper pigment composed of mainly copper sulphate, some malachite, dolomite, silicaceous mineral, mixed with lead–tin yellow and lead white. Glazed thinly with verdigris SEM–EDX, ATR-FTIR imaging