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Table 1 Construction sequence for buildings of the Preah Vihar monument based on their sandstone block and pediment characteristics

From: Determining the construction sequence of the Preah Vihear monument in Cambodia from its sandstone block characteristics

Stage Building MSa Kb Cab Tib Crb Mnb Feb Cub Znb Rbb Srb Yb Zrb Pbb Block sizec Style of pediment ends
(1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ) (1σ)
1st (Bakheng style period: the end of the 9th century to the beginning of the 10th century) Western Annex Hall (N2) central, upper structure 0.011 (0.009) 2690 (1980) 6300 (200) 1100 (80) 33.6 (38.3) 205 (18) 11,800 (880) 10.4 (2.5) 12.8 (4.4) 24 (6.8) 14 (2.9) 12.2 (2.8) 71.8 (11.9) 4.2 (1.8) Small  
Western Annex Hall (N2) central, platform 0.015 (0.007) 2470 (1720) 6800 (450) 1050 (249) 13.4 (6.3) 287 (156) 9580 (2220) 13.8 (6.0) 13.5 (8.3) 20 (5.9) 14 (2.0) 10.2 (1.7) 75.0 (19.1) 5.1 (0.8) Small  
Western Annex Hall (N2) east, lower platform 0.018 (0.010) 4260 (2450) 6760 (410) 1060 (205) 19.8 (2.6) 381 (128) 9500 (1570) 25.8 (27.2) 28.9 (3.3) 30 (11.5) 16 (3.3) 13.2 (2.3) 83.1 (22.7) 5.8 (1.9) Small  
Western Annex Hall (N2) west, platform 0.014 (0.013) 3170 (2450) 6990 (410) 1070 (166) 19.8 (2.6) 196 (128) 11,800 (2650) 11.0 (27.2) 22.2 (3.3) 20 (2.6) 14 (1.8) 12.0 (2.3) 75.4 (22.7) 4.9 (1.9) Small  
2nd (Late Khleang style period: the early 11th century) Western Annex Hall (N2) east, upper structure 0.042 (0.019) 5510 (1560) 6210 (120) 1240 (107) 35.4 (16.3) 180 (14) 11,500 (1340) 13.2 (1.0) 34.2 (10.6) 44 (4.4) 19 (1.0) 15.3 (3.0) 101.2 (31.9) 5.4 (2.4) Small Scroll, one block
Western Annex Hall (N2) east, upper platform 0.042 (0.019) 7530 (1000) 8330 (2640) 1360 (191) 31.6 (9.8) 184 (19) 11,600 (1530) 19.4 (18.9) 27.3 (3.5) 41 (11.2) 19 (3.0) 15.7 (2.1) 116.7 (14.3) 5.2 (1.8) Small  
Eastern Annex Hall (N1) 0.047 (0.021) 5990 (1750) 6660 (330) 1510 (322) 23.2 (5.2) 205 (40) 10,600 (640) 29.2 (22.3) 30.1 (10.6) 33 (7.0) 20 (3.5) 17.0 (2.0) 107.5 (40.3) 3.9 (0.6) Medium Scroll, one block
Western U-shaped Extension (O2) 0.043 (0.017) 6640 (570) 6270 (250) 1430 (222) 23.0 (3.5) 256 (94) 11,400 (670) 15.0 (10.4) 32.2 (5.1) 42 (2.9) 19 (1.6) 18.5 (3.4) 156.0 68.0 4.3 (1.9) Medium Scroll, one block
Western L-shaped Gallery (K2) platform 0.041 (0.025) 6060 (3250) 6300 (220) 1260 (405) 21.4 (10.0) 244 (67) 12,400 (2680) 21.6 (10.3) 36.2 (17.0) 36 (14.4) 21 (7.4) 14.3 (3.7) 119.8 (56.2) 11 (6.3) Medium  
3rd (Late Khleang style period: the early 11th century to the mid-11th century) Western Annex Hall (N2) west, upper structure 0.045 (0.018) 2860 (2440) 6170 (220) 1000 (189) 29.4 (16.5) 161 (24) 8300 (2660) 11.4 (2.9) 19.0 (4.6) 24 (14.1) 14 (3.4) 11.8 (6.8) 80.4 (25.5) 3.7 (1.9) Mediem Scroll, one block
Eastern U-shaped Extension (O1) 0.030 (0.016) 4880 (2380) 6350 (150) 970 (104) 23.6 (13.0) 231 (150) 8600 (1080) 19.2 (8.6) 21.0 (7.5) 27 (7.2) 25 (12.6) 16.7 (5.9) 72.2 (13.2) 7.1 (3.2) Medium Scroll, one block
Gopura V (W) 0.023 (0.017) 5530 (5280) 6250 (140) 800 (135) 11.8 (2.3) 142 (12) 8200 (1050) 14.0 (3.0) 12.1 (3.9) 25 (15.2) 15 (4.4) 10.0 (2.8) 66.9 (23.2) 4.9 (0.4) Large Scroll, one block
Western L-shaped Gallery (K2) upper structure 0.025 (0.013) 2130 (990) 6190 (48) 870 (133) 15.2 (8.2) 159 (20) 8900 (1280) 15.0 (5.5) 25.1 (2.7) 22 (6.8) 19 (5.5) 11.9 (1.3) 70.2 (11.3) 6.0 (1.6) Medium Scroll, two blocks
4th (End of the Khleang to Baphuon style periods: the mid-11th century to the end of the 11th century) Gopura III (P) 0.055 (0.017) 8080 (1710) 6420 (310) 1360 (146) 39.0 (18.3) 217 (70) 15,800 (2660) 50.2 (35.6) 38.3 (12.9) 42 (4.6) 23 (5.4) 17.5 (6.1) 133.2 (77.7) 12.8 (8.6) Large Scroll, one block
Gopura II (L) 0.057 (0.017) 6460 (1440) 6090 (87) 1370 (179) 32.2 (15.2) 179 (20) 11,800 (600) 27.4 (15.1) 35.8 (8.3) 40 (6.8) 19 (2.4) 16.2 (3.0) 92.2 (13.3) 6.9 (0.9) Medium Scroll, two blocks
Eastern L-shaped Galley (K1) 0.051 (0.012) 6580 (1460) 6220 (120) 1420 (91) 19.0 (5.0) 182 (27) 12,400 (1410) 17.4 (5.6) 29.9 (10.7) 43 (6.0) 20 (2.6) 17.1 (5.8) 141.4 (26.7) 4.7 (1.7) Medium Scroll, two blocks
Hall (J) 0.067 (0.016) 7400 (1420) 6350 (260) 1460 (261) 28.6 (4.2) 204 (31) 12,500 (880) 72.6 (46.6) 64.6 (41.5) 40 (6.7) 27 (7.2) 13.2 (3.1) 130.0 (28.7) 16.0 (14.2) Medium Scroll, two blocks
Gopura I (G) 0.049 (0.013) 6090 (2590) 6260 (58) 1480 (238) 29.2 (7.0) 201 (14) 11,000 (1640) 32 (9.1) 47.5 (14.3) 37 (11.2) 24 (5.2) 19.5 (6.5) 133.6 (47.9) 34.3 (50.4) Medium Scroll, two blocks
Mandapa (C) 0.068 (0.012) 6540 (1640) 7860 (2180) 1330 (126) 142.8 (239.6) 456 (159) 11,100 (810) 21.6 (8.8) 51.0 (26.1) 42 (4.9) 21 (2.4) 52.3 (70.1) 108.0 (19.6) 80.2 (59.6) Medium Five-headed naga
5th (Baphuon to Angkor Wat style periods: the mid-11th century to the end of the 12th century) Western Building (E) 0.036 (0.007) 2940 (1030) 6240 (210) 1100 (212) 16.6 (4.5) 159 (16) 8900 (1400) 10.6 (6.2) 21.5 (10.8) 25 (7.3) 16 (2.5) 12.5 (2.4) 76.5 (7.1) 5.1 (1.3) Medium + large Scroll, two blocks
Eastern Building (F) 0.042 (0.016) 3950 (3020) 6320 (200) 1140 (340) 21.0 (11.7) 169 (19) 9200 (2060) 10.6 (1.6) 22.5 (10.3) 27 (7.4) 18 (7.0) 11.8 (2.2) 89.1 (32.1) 4.3 (2.3) Large Scroll, two blocks
Gopura IV (T) 0.032 (0.019) 4230 (2550) 6160 (96) 1060 (273) 24.8 (10.5) 210 (51) 10,500 (2030) 11.2 (3.7) 22.5 (9.6) 29 (13.0) 15 (4.3) 12.2 (3.5) 80.1 (27.8) 10.2 (8.4) Large Five-headed naga
Eastern Library (H1) 0.020 (0.012) 5820 (2930) 6380 (160) 1270 (395) 26.2 (7.5) 175 (21) 9200 (2590) 19.2 (9.9) 37.8 (16.8) 32 (13.5) 58 (32.8) 15.3 (2.1) 114.1 (67.1) 4.7 (2.0) Large Five-headed naga
Western Library (H2) 0.019 (0.011) 7430 (1480) 6250 (170) 1135 (243) 34.2 (15.9) 176 (22) 8400 (1610) 80.6 (110.4) 47.7(15.6) 24 (4.9) 56 (23.4) 14.7 (5.5) 66.0 (10.2) 9.1 (4.1) Large Five-headed naga
South Gopura (A) 0.022 (0.011) 3750 (4940) 6200 (140) 1140 (164) 26.6 (11.0) 190 (52) 7600 (690) 78.4 (115.5) 37.5 (39.3) 18 (4.1) 28 (13.7) 18.3 (10.3) 68.5 (10.2) 7.4 (2.7) Large Five-headed naga
Central Sanctuary (B) 0.034 (0.018) 4520 (2390) 7280 (940) 1230 (217) 22.2 (7.7) 322 (122) 9300 (720) 26.8 (13.4) 41.2 (33.7) 27 (7.7) 17 (1.8) 12.7 (2.7) 83.6 (24.5) 84.0 (142.7) Large  
Gallery (D) east 0.033 (0.016) 12,840 (4540) 7050 (460) 1360 (199) 32.8 (4.3) 244 (69) 11,100 (1560) 22.4 (12.2) 82.1 (76.2) 33 (6.8) 30 (12.5) 12.6 (3.6) 93.9 (33.3) 17.2 (19.4) Medium + large Five-headed naga
Gallery (D) west 0.027 (0.017) 2800 (2280) 6460 (260) 1000 (101) 37.8 (23.7) 336 (251) 8300 (900) 30.6 (27.5) 66.0 (27.1) 20 (5.2) 28
(15.8)
30.0
(22.6)
63.9
(12.4)
12.9
(4.8)
Large Five-headed naga
Eastern Wall (Z1) 0.037 (0.015) 4570 (930) 6240 (360) 1180 (211) 27.2 (12.7) 215 (50) 11,600 (1000) 11.4 (3.7) 32.6 (11.3) 33 (1.6) 17 (0.9) 19.4 (3.2) 140.7 (84.1) 6.6 (1.8) Large  
Western Wall (Z2) 0.024 (0.013) 5040 (4790) 6110 (75) 1040 (300) 20.8 (15.2) 153 (16) 7049 (840) 12.8 (3.9) 21.4 (8.0) 28 (9.4) 15 (4.4) 12.5 (3.6) 123.8 (75.5) 5.7 (1.1) Large  
Tower (Q) 0.036 (0.018) 6690 (1730) 9000 (4380) 1310 (91) 34.0 (7.6) 210 (33) 11,300 (1820) 55.6 (39.2) 34.4 (10.3) 32 (7.3) 22 (7.1) 19.0 (4.4) 86.5 (16.5) 4.2 (1.3) Large  
  1. a MS Magnetic susceptibility, 10−3 SI unit
  2. bppm
  3. cSmall: <50 cm in thickness and <50 cm in width, medium: <50 cm in thickness and 50–100 cm in width, and large: >50 cm thickness or >100 cm width (on average)