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Table 1 Comparison of different imaging modalities

From: An assessment of multimodal imaging of subsurface text in mummy cartonnage using surrogate papyrus phantoms

Imaging technique Number of sheets through which iron-based inks can be recorded Number of sheets through which carbon-based inks can be recorded Typical image acquisition time Typical image processing time Pixel/voxel size Field of view
Multispectral imaging 2 2 20 min ~ 1 h 24 μm 30 × 30 cm
Transillumination > 3 > 3 20 min ~ 1 h 24 μm 10 × 15 cm
Optical coherence tomography 0 0 < 10 s 2 min 2 μm 10 mm × 2 mm (in depth)
X-ray micro tomography > 3 Not visible 18 h < 2 h 38 μm 5 × 10 cm
Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy 6 Not visible 30 s None ~ 1 cm 1 cm
X-ray fluorescence imaging > 3 Not visible 10 s 1 min 100 μm 10 × 15 cm
X-ray phase contrast imaging > 3 Not visible 10 min 1 min 100 μm 2 × 5 cm
Terahertz 1 3 0.1 s/pixel 10–20 s 100 μm 4 × 4 cm
  1. Note that for most of these parameters can be varied depending on the application, so these figures should be seen as indicative only