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Table 1 Identified pigments in the illuminations of the investigated manuscripts

From: Multianalytical approach for the analysis of the Codices Millenarius Maior and Millenarius Minor in Kremsmuenster Abbey, Upper Austria

Color Codex Millenarius Maior Codex Millenarius Minor
White Lead or calcium based pigments Lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2)
Yellow Orpiment/realgar as well as iron oxide Orpiment (As2S3) as well as iron oxide
Orange Minium (= red led, Pb3O4) Minium (= red led, Pb3O4)
Red Minium (= red led, Pb3O4) Vermilion (HgS)
Dark red Iron oxide/ochre Iron oxide (FeO(OH))
Blue Azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2) Lapis lazuli (Na8…10[Al6Si6O24]S2…4)
Dark blue Indigo (C16H10N2O2)  
Green Copper based green pigment Copper(II)-hydroxyl chloride (Cu2Cl(OH)3)
Brown Iron based brown pigment (brown ochre) Iron based brown pigment (brown ochre)
  1. Due to rFTIR and Raman spectrometry a clear identification of similar pigments was not always possible; therefore, the chemical formulas are not mentioned