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Table 1 Table of characterised pigments and dyes

From: Illuminating the Carolingian era: new discoveries as a result of scientific analyses

Manuscript name Godescalc Evangelistary Saint-Denis’s Gospels St. Médard de Soissons’s Gospels Theodulf’s Bible Theodulf’s Bible Saint-Riquier’s Gospels
Mark NAL1203 lat.9387 lat.8850 lat.11937 lat. 9380 BM.04
Date 781–783 End of the 8th c. c.800 Early 9th c. 801–818 Before 800
Blue Woad − indigo (and + white/and + Egyptian blue (f3v)) Woad − indigo lapis azurite Woad − indigo (and + white) lapis (and + white) azurite (and + white) Woad − indigo Woad − indigo (and + white) Woad − indigo (+ azurite (fl1, 15v, 16)/+ lapis (fl7v, f66v, f153v))
Purple Folium − orchil (and woad indigo + folium) Orchil/folium Orchil/folium (and lapis + folium) Orchil/folium Orchil/folium Orchil/folium
Green Verdigris (and + white) Verdigris woad+orpiment Verdigris (and + indigo/and+yellow) woad +orpiment Woad+orpiment Woad+orpiment Woad +orpiment verdigris (f153v)
Red Ochre (and + lead orange) Cinnabar − vermillion ( + folium) Ochre Orange +organic ? Orange +organic ? Ochre
Orange Lead orange Yellow + red (cinnabar − verrnillion) Lead orange Lead orange Lead orange Lead orange
Pink Folium − orchil + white and orange + white Red + white Red + white White + purple
Yellow Orpiment yellow ochre Orpiment Orpiment yellow ochre Orpiment Orpiment Orpiment
White Lead white Lead white Lead white Lead white Lead white Lead white
Black Carbon black Carbon black Carbon black (probably) Carbon black