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Table 2 Table of characterised metallic pigments

From: Illuminating the Carolingian era: new discoveries as a result of scientific analyses

Manuscript name Godescalc Evangelistary Saint-Denis’s Gospels St. Médard de Soissons’s Gospels Theodulf’s Bible Theodulf’s Bible Saint-Riquier’s Gospels
Mark NAL1203 lat.9387 lat.8850 lat.11937 lat.9380 BM.04
Date 781–783 End of the 8th c. c.800 Early 9th c. 801–818 Before 800
Gilded text Gold + copper (0.3–2.5%) + lead? (fl, 2v, 3v, 4, 117v)/+ copper (f4, 5, 7, 70v)/+ copper + silver (f117) Gold + copper (l%) + silver (2–3%) (f4v, 19v, 23v, 59v, 202v, 216v, 248v) Gold + lead + copper (f3v)/gold + copper (1%) + silver (0–1%) (fl0v, 75v, 227v) Gold + copper (4–8%) + silver (2–6%) (f2v, 4v) Gold + copper + silver (f1)
Gilded decoration Gold (f3) (+ silver (3–5%) (flv, 3v)/+ copper + lead (f4)) Gold + copper + silver (f9v, l0v, 14v, 18) Gold + lead copper + nickel + silver (f 2)/gold + copper (1%) + silver (0–1%) (f6v) Gold + copper (3–8%) + silver (2–7%) (f3v, 46v, 146v, 347) Gold + copper + silver (f11, 15, 16, 17v, 66v, 153v)
Silver text Copper + silver + gold (f5, 7, 117v)/+ zinc (f70v)/+ mercury f123v) Silver + copper + gold (flv, 4v, 59v, 216v, 248v)/copper + silver + lead + mercury (fl 0v)/copper + silver + mercury (f23v) Copper + silver + lead + gold (f2) Silver + copper + zinc (f146v)
Silver decoration Silver + copper + gold + lead (f 3) Silver + copper + lead (fl0v) I silver + copper + gold + lead + iron (fl5v, 18) Lead + silver + gold + copper (f6v, lOv) I copper + silver + gold (f 75v) Silver + copper + gold and traces of mercury Silver + copper + gold (f3v)