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Table 1 Advanced materials and technologies studied

From: The Hidden Face of Cultural Heritage: a science window for the dissemination of elementary knowledge of risk and vulnerability in cultural heritage

Map code Explanation file title Elements in the exhibition Aims Science involved (materials and methods) Concept 1: materials 2: heritage pieces 3: analytical techniques 4: systems risk/vulnerability Target audience A: all publics C: children R: researchers Type of activity H: handwork C: computer use R: reading L: listening
Risk-1 Risks in cultural heritage Guide file Andalusian risk map Software (vulnerability matrix and fuzzy) Webpage and videos Scientific session posters Explaining the differences between hazard and risk Geographic information systems and vulnerability assessment applied to the analysis of hazards and degree of conservation in cultural heritage. Risk Maps 4 A, R C, R, L
Risk-2 From cheers to graffiti Guide file Samples of stone with different types of graffiti and cleaning tests Optical microscope images with cuts of marble with graffiti before and after cleaning Web page Scientific session posters Explaining the chromatic alterations caused by graffiti Concern about the hazards of vandalism Characterization of stone materials and weathering forms due to graffiti Cleaning methods (laser ablation, chemical cleaning, water jet…) 1, 3 A, C, R H, C, R, L
Risk-3 Damage due to soluble salts on porous materials. Guide file Stones after salt weathering tests Web page Scientific session posters Explaining efflorescence damage Concern about hazards associated with saline mediums Characterization of stone materials and efflorescence Accelerated weathering tests 1, 3 A, C, R C, R, L
Risk-4 Did you know that…? Salts can crystallize forming different minerals depending on the temperature and humidity conditions Guide file Stones after salt weathering tests Web page Scientific session posters Explaining efflorescence damage Concern about hazards associated with saline mediums in different thermo-hygrometric conditions Characterisation of stone materials and efflorescence Accelerated weathering tests depending on humidity and temperature conditions. Vulnerability associated with salts and thermo-hygrometric conditions 1, 2, 3, 4 A, R C, R, L
Risk-5 Deposits and black crusts Guide file Stratigraphies of stone and mortars with crust and deposits due to atmospheric pollution Web page Optical microscope Web page Scientific session posters Explaining the alteration by black crusts and deposits Concern about the hazards associated with pollution in cities Characterization of mortar and stone with black crust and deposits Vulnerability associated with atmospheric contamination 1, 2, 3, 4 A, R H, C, R, L
Risk-6 Did you know that…? Some pigments cannot be used on frescoes because they change colour Guide file Pigments and laboratory materials to produce colour changes Stratigraphies Optic microscope Study of the vulnerability of wall paintings, especially frescoes Need to know the stratigraphies in restoration processes to avoid damage Study of the vulnerability of fresco paintings and the necessity of knowing the stratigraphies in restoration processes to avoid damage 1, 3, 4 A, C. R H, R, L
Method-1 Non-destructive techniques applied to the study of risk in cultural heritage Guide file Web page IT equipment Scientific session posters Study of vulnerability by non-destructive techniques Explanation of the use of accelerometers, ultrasounds or FBG sensors (fiber Bragg grating) 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-2 Technology applied to restoration Guide file Inert gas treatment for wooden sculpture in a plastic bag DNA identification for biological materials Web page IT equipment Explaining the study of vulnerability by non-destructive or minimally invasive techniques that allow materials and their pathologies to be characterized Explaining the use of inert gas to stop bio-deterioration Explanation of γ-graphics, radiographies, digital image analysis, infrared and ultraviolet reflectography and ultrasound waves during the restoration process Biology identification using molecular biology (PCR) Explanation of a real case in situ, biology attack on wood, and how it can be eliminated using inert gas by anoxia 3 A, R H, C, R, L
Method-3 Porosity Guide file Tests of different materials Weights and water Point-load equipment Web page Scientific session posters Explaining porosity and its role in cultural heritage vulnerability Explaining the method of measuring porosity by capillarity in atmospheric conditions Assess the relationship between porosity and comprehensive resistance 1, 3 A, C, R H, C, R, L
Method-4 Ultrasound (US) analysis Guide file Tests of different materials US equipment Web page Scientific session posters Explaining the speed of propagation of ultrasounds Assess the vulnerability of materials by US propagation Explaining the method of measuring vulnerability by auscultation the speed of US propagation Evaluating porosity by US propagation speed 1, 3 A, R H, C, R, L
Method-5 Accelerated weathering tests Guide file Trials of samples in different environments Web page Scientific session poster Explaining simulated atmosphere tests and their role in the study of vulnerability Explaining accelerated weathering tests and the way of evaluating the restoration products 1, 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-6 Thermographic analysis Guide file Thermographic equipment Web page Scientific session posters Explaining thermography and its role in cultural heritage vulnerability Explaining the thermographic method and its relationship with freezing cycles 3, 4 A, R H, C, R, L
Method-7 Did you know that…? Digital processing techniques were first applied in journalism Guide file Software Web page Scientific session posters Digital analysis image in diagnosis Explaining vulnerability and its evaluation using digital image analysis The study of the lions of the Alhambra (Granada) 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-8 Building crack monitoring Guide file IT equipment and camera Explaining the study of vulnerability using non-destructive techniques Explaining the laser equipment used in 3D scan 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-9 3D Technology Guide file IT equipment 3D printer 3D prints Explaining the study of vulnerability using non-destructive techniques Possibilities of 3D printing for the dissemination of CH for blinders Explaining the application of digitalizing, printing and 3D construction techniques in the cultural heritage field 3 A, R H, C, R, L
Method-10 Augmented reality Guide file IT equipment Explaining the application of non-destructive techniques in the diagnosis process Explaining the merging of real and virtual worlds through a technological process and its use in archaeological sites 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-11 Did you know that…? There are standards to certify the freezing resistance of ceramic materials Guide file IT equipment Understanding the objectives of quality standards in diagnosis Need for quality standards to be able to guarantee and compare the results of characterisation 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-12 Did you know that…? In Rafael’s original drawing there was a dog instead of a unicorn? Guide file Web page To discover hidden drawings, signatures, … Infrared light can pass through painting film. When it hits black carbon particles (underdrawings) it is absorbed and a camera with an IR detector can see underdrawings as a dark area. It can be used in paintings/manuscripts/documents 1, 2, 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-13 Did you know that?…UV radiation does not only enable us to detect counterfeit notes. Guide file Dark room and UV light to see the altarpiece of Saint Therese Identification of original and added layers of varnishes Aged varnishes can be detected under UV light because they light up. Retouches appear as dark areas and original varnishes appear as bright areas 3 A, R H, C, R, L
Case-1 Virgen de la Antigua restoration Guide file Optical microscope UV light, IR, radiography and surface light studio Optical microscope Stratigraphy Altarpiece of Saint Therese Project memories Characterisation of artworks for diagnosis Finding out the layers of paintings UV and IR applications (Methods 12 and 13) X-ray radiation can go through materials depending on their composition. X-ray images show dark areas when materials are made of elements with low atomic weight and bright areas when materials are made of elements with a high atomic weight Special imaging technique to identify defects in masterpieces lit from a low angle Identification of the components of the paint layers by optic microscopy using high magnification 2 A, R H, C, R, L
Case-2 Cadiz Cathedral Guide file Web page Scientific session posters Project memories Knowing the vulnerability of a real case related to efflorescence, relative humidity and temperature Applications of microclimatic control and SEM–EDX for vulnerability studies by efflorescence, relative humidity and temperature 2, 4 A, R C, R. L
Case-3 The Chapel of Falla Cadiz Cathedral Guide file Software Web page Scientific session posters Project memories Composition and extension of efflorescence Quantification of weathering degrees Application of digital image processing to evaluate damages by efflorescence 2, 4 A, R C, R. L
Case-4 The courtyard of the lions, Alhambra (Granada, Spain) Guide file Infrared camera Web page Scientific session posters Project memories Relationship between thermal changes and surface decay Thermography applied to the columns and Lions in the Alhambra (Granada). Explaining thermography in a real case 2, 4 A, R H, C, R. L
Case-5 Did you know that…? A lot of silver objects are made of lead or copper with a thin layer of silver Guide file Metallic pieces and stratigraphies Web page Scientific session poster Project memories Application of SEM–EDX to the study of metallic materials and their alterations Patent Concept “Plata Ruolz” SEM–EDX facilitates the chemical analysis of small pieces 3, 4 A, R C, R. L
Case-6 Did you know that…? The use of Prussian blue in the composition of a painting can indicate the date it was painted? Guide file Optic microscope and stratigraphies Web page Project memories Characterisation of artworks Dating Dating with pigments Microscope on the study of stratigraphies of paintings 2, 3, 4 A, R H, C, R. L
Case-7 Restoration of Virgen del Rosario (Santo Domingo Church, Granada) Guide file Optic Microscope UV lighting room Gemstones and metallic studies. GvSIG Application Scientific session posters Project memories Characterization and diagnosis of artworks Characterization and database referencing techniques in diagnosis 2, 4 A, R C, R. L
Case-8 Restoration of a canopy (Virgen del Mayor Dolor, Aracena, Huelva) Guide file Optic Microscope, SEM–EDX, LIBS Scientific session posters Project memories Characterization and diagnosis of artworks Characterization and diagnosis of artworks 2, 4 A, R C, R. L
Game-1 Card games ICOMOS glossary about the identification of material pathologies Image screen and collage Scientific session posters Pairing game for kids with weathering forms Study of vulnerability by the identification of pathologies Explaining the analysis in situ of weathering forms, their relationship with agents and the physical–chemical mechanisms 3, 4 C H, L