Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Advanced materials and technologies studied

From: The Hidden Face of Cultural Heritage: a science window for the dissemination of elementary knowledge of risk and vulnerability in cultural heritage

Map code Explanation file title Elements in the exhibition Aims Science involved (materials and methods) Concept
1: materials
2: heritage pieces
3: analytical techniques
4: systems risk/vulnerability
Target audience
A: all publics
C: children
R: researchers
Type of activity
H: handwork
C: computer use
R: reading
L: listening
Risk-1 Risks in cultural heritage Guide file
Andalusian risk map
Software (vulnerability matrix and fuzzy)
Webpage and videos
Scientific session posters
Explaining the differences between hazard and risk Geographic information systems and vulnerability assessment applied to the analysis of hazards and degree of conservation in cultural heritage. Risk Maps 4 A, R C, R, L
Risk-2 From cheers to graffiti Guide file
Samples of stone with different types of graffiti and cleaning tests
Optical microscope images with cuts of marble with graffiti before and after cleaning
Web page
Scientific session posters
Explaining the chromatic alterations caused by graffiti
Concern about the hazards of vandalism
Characterization of stone materials and weathering forms due to graffiti
Cleaning methods (laser ablation, chemical cleaning, water jet…)
1, 3 A, C, R H, C, R, L
Risk-3 Damage due to soluble salts on porous materials. Guide file
Stones after salt weathering tests
Web page
Scientific session posters
Explaining efflorescence damage
Concern about hazards associated with saline mediums
Characterization of stone materials and efflorescence
Accelerated weathering tests
1, 3 A, C, R C, R, L
Risk-4 Did you know that…? Salts can crystallize forming different minerals depending on the temperature and humidity conditions Guide file
Stones after salt weathering tests
Web page
Scientific session posters
Explaining efflorescence damage
Concern about hazards associated with saline mediums in different thermo-hygrometric conditions
Characterisation of stone materials and efflorescence
Accelerated weathering tests depending on humidity and temperature conditions. Vulnerability associated with salts and thermo-hygrometric conditions
1, 2, 3, 4 A, R C, R, L
Risk-5 Deposits and black crusts Guide file
Stratigraphies of stone and mortars with crust and deposits due to atmospheric pollution
Web page
Optical microscope
Web page
Scientific session posters
Explaining the alteration by black crusts and deposits
Concern about the hazards associated with pollution in cities
Characterization of mortar and stone with black crust and deposits
Vulnerability associated with atmospheric contamination
1, 2, 3, 4 A, R H, C, R, L
Risk-6 Did you know that…? Some pigments cannot be used on frescoes because they change colour Guide file
Pigments and laboratory materials to produce colour changes
Stratigraphies
Optic microscope
Study of the vulnerability of wall paintings, especially frescoes
Need to know the stratigraphies in restoration processes to avoid damage
Study of the vulnerability of fresco paintings and the necessity of knowing the stratigraphies in restoration processes to avoid damage 1, 3, 4 A, C. R H, R, L
Method-1 Non-destructive techniques applied to the study of risk in cultural heritage Guide file
Web page
IT equipment
Scientific session posters
Study of vulnerability by non-destructive techniques Explanation of the use of accelerometers, ultrasounds or FBG sensors (fiber Bragg grating) 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-2 Technology applied to restoration Guide file
Inert gas treatment for wooden sculpture in a plastic bag
DNA identification for biological materials
Web page
IT equipment
Explaining the study of vulnerability by non-destructive or minimally invasive techniques that allow materials and their pathologies to be characterized
Explaining the use of inert gas to stop bio-deterioration
Explanation of γ-graphics, radiographies, digital image analysis, infrared and ultraviolet reflectography and ultrasound waves during the restoration process
Biology identification using molecular biology (PCR)
Explanation of a real case in situ, biology attack on wood, and how it can be eliminated using inert gas by anoxia
3 A, R H, C, R, L
Method-3 Porosity Guide file
Tests of different materials
Weights and water
Point-load equipment
Web page
Scientific session posters
Explaining porosity and its role in cultural heritage vulnerability Explaining the method of measuring porosity by capillarity in atmospheric conditions
Assess the relationship between porosity and comprehensive resistance
1, 3 A, C, R H, C, R, L
Method-4 Ultrasound (US) analysis Guide file
Tests of different materials
US equipment
Web page
Scientific session posters
Explaining the speed of propagation of ultrasounds
Assess the vulnerability of materials by US propagation
Explaining the method of measuring vulnerability by auscultation the speed of US propagation
Evaluating porosity by US propagation speed
1, 3 A, R H, C, R, L
Method-5 Accelerated weathering tests Guide file
Trials of samples in different environments
Web page
Scientific session poster
Explaining simulated atmosphere tests and their role in the study of vulnerability Explaining accelerated weathering tests and the way of evaluating the restoration products 1, 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-6 Thermographic analysis Guide file
Thermographic equipment
Web page
Scientific session posters
Explaining thermography and its role in cultural heritage vulnerability Explaining the thermographic method and its relationship with freezing cycles 3, 4 A, R H, C, R, L
Method-7 Did you know that…? Digital processing techniques were first applied in journalism Guide file
Software
Web page
Scientific session posters
Digital analysis image in diagnosis Explaining vulnerability and its evaluation using digital image analysis
The study of the lions of the Alhambra (Granada)
3 A, R C, R, L
Method-8 Building crack monitoring Guide file
IT equipment and camera
Explaining the study of vulnerability using non-destructive techniques Explaining the laser equipment used in 3D scan 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-9 3D Technology Guide file
IT equipment
3D printer
3D prints
Explaining the study of vulnerability using non-destructive techniques
Possibilities of 3D printing for the dissemination of CH for blinders
Explaining the application of digitalizing, printing and 3D construction techniques in the cultural heritage field 3 A, R H, C, R, L
Method-10 Augmented reality Guide file
IT equipment
Explaining the application of non-destructive techniques in the diagnosis process Explaining the merging of real and virtual worlds through a technological process and its use in archaeological sites 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-11 Did you know that…? There are standards to certify the freezing resistance of ceramic materials Guide file
IT equipment
Understanding the objectives of quality standards in diagnosis Need for quality standards to be able to guarantee and compare the results of characterisation 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-12 Did you know that…? In Rafael’s original drawing there was a dog instead of a unicorn? Guide file
Web page
To discover hidden drawings, signatures, … Infrared light can pass through painting film. When it hits black carbon particles (underdrawings) it is absorbed and a camera with an IR detector can see underdrawings as a dark area. It can be used in paintings/manuscripts/documents 1, 2, 3 A, R C, R, L
Method-13 Did you know that?…UV radiation does not only enable us to detect counterfeit notes. Guide file
Dark room and UV light to see the altarpiece of Saint Therese
Identification of original and added layers of varnishes Aged varnishes can be detected under UV light because they light up. Retouches appear as dark areas and original varnishes appear as bright areas 3 A, R H, C, R, L
Case-1 Virgen de la Antigua restoration Guide file
Optical microscope
UV light, IR, radiography and surface light studio
Optical microscope
Stratigraphy
Altarpiece of Saint Therese
Project memories
Characterisation of artworks for diagnosis
Finding out the layers of paintings
UV and IR applications (Methods 12 and 13)
X-ray radiation can go through materials depending on their composition. X-ray images show dark areas when materials are made of elements with low atomic weight and bright areas when materials are made of elements with a high atomic weight
Special imaging technique to identify defects in masterpieces lit from a low angle
Identification of the components of the paint layers by optic microscopy using high magnification
2 A, R H, C, R, L
Case-2 Cadiz Cathedral Guide file
Web page
Scientific session posters
Project memories
Knowing the vulnerability of a real case related to efflorescence, relative humidity and temperature Applications of microclimatic control and SEM–EDX for vulnerability studies by efflorescence, relative humidity and temperature 2, 4 A, R C, R. L
Case-3 The Chapel of Falla
Cadiz Cathedral
Guide file
Software
Web page
Scientific session posters
Project memories
Composition and extension of efflorescence
Quantification of weathering degrees
Application of digital image processing to evaluate damages by efflorescence 2, 4 A, R C, R. L
Case-4 The courtyard of the lions, Alhambra (Granada, Spain) Guide file
Infrared camera
Web page
Scientific session posters
Project memories
Relationship between thermal changes and surface decay Thermography applied to the columns and Lions in the Alhambra (Granada). Explaining thermography in a real case 2, 4 A, R H, C, R. L
Case-5 Did you know that…? A lot of silver objects are made of lead or copper with a thin layer of silver Guide file
Metallic pieces and stratigraphies
Web page
Scientific session poster
Project memories
Application of SEM–EDX to the study of metallic materials and their alterations Patent Concept “Plata Ruolz”
SEM–EDX facilitates the chemical analysis of small pieces
3, 4 A, R C, R. L
Case-6 Did you know that…? The use of Prussian blue in the composition of a painting can indicate the date it was painted? Guide file
Optic microscope and stratigraphies
Web page
Project memories
Characterisation of artworks
Dating
Dating with pigments
Microscope on the study of stratigraphies of paintings
2, 3, 4 A, R H, C, R. L
Case-7 Restoration of Virgen del Rosario (Santo Domingo Church, Granada) Guide file
Optic Microscope
UV lighting room
Gemstones and metallic studies.
GvSIG Application
Scientific session posters
Project memories
Characterization and diagnosis of artworks Characterization and database referencing techniques in diagnosis 2, 4 A, R C, R. L
Case-8 Restoration of a canopy (Virgen del Mayor Dolor, Aracena, Huelva) Guide file
Optic Microscope, SEM–EDX, LIBS
Scientific session posters
Project memories
Characterization and diagnosis of artworks Characterization and diagnosis of artworks 2, 4 A, R C, R. L
Game-1 Card games ICOMOS glossary about the identification of material pathologies
Image screen and collage
Scientific session posters
Pairing game for kids with weathering forms
Study of vulnerability by the identification of pathologies Explaining the analysis in situ of weathering forms, their relationship with agents and the physical–chemical mechanisms 3, 4 C H, L