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Table 1 Main steps and ingredients of the recipes in Iberian treatises (fifteenth to seventeenth); pH and gallic acid concentration of final extracts

From: New insights into iron-gall inks through the use of historically accurate reconstructions

Manuscript FeSO a4 CuSO4 Galls: FeSO4 :Gum arabicb Extraction Filtration step 1c Galls processingd Binder processing FeSO4 processing Filtration step 2c Final ink pH Gallic acid in the extracts/mg/mLe La* a* b*
Braga
cx. 31
Azeche n.a. 1:4:0.5 Water and white vinegar; boiling and reduced to 2 parts No Quebrantar crushed n.a. Peneirado
Sift
No 1.47 1.8 ± 0.6 19.52, 0.84, − 3.94
Montpellier
fol. 233v
Acije n.a 1:0.6:0.6 Water, 3 days, RT
Heated and reduced to ¼.
Romper crushed Pour into the solution n.a 2.38 19 ± 4 24.44, 1.06, − 5.61
Córdoba
Legajo 13665, cx. 5, fol. 58v
Asiche n.a 1:1:0.5 Water, 8 days, RT
Heated ca. 100 °C
Quebrantar crushed Pour into the solution Cobrildo en agua
Dilute in water
2.00 4.3 ± 0.8 26.70; 1.00; − 5.54
Guadalupe
fol. 201r-v
Azige Caparroso 1:0.6:0.3 Water and white wine;
6 days, RT
Heated ca. 60 °C
Partidas broken Dilute No eches la tierra
Don’t pour the dirt
2.14 2 ± 1 19.97; 1.03; − 4.80
Madrid
Ep. 3 fol.192r-v
Caparrosa n.a 1:1:1 White wine; 9 days, RT Quebrantadas crushed n.a n.a no 1.95 0.33 ± 0.04 27.26; 1.40; − 5.80
  1. aNames given in the original recipes
  2. bThe ratio is represented in weight and was normalized for the gall mass; in the simple descriptive model commonly described in literature: “9 g/L gallic acid monohydrate; 40 g/L FeSO4·7H2O; 80 g/L gum Arabic: 1: 4,4:8,9″
  3. cStep 1, reference to filtration after extraction; Step 2 reference of a final filtration, after the addition of FeSO4
  4. dIn italic the original term for the processing of galls, binder and iron salt, followed by its English translation
  5. eAverage value, please see “Experimental” section for more details; the reference proposed in literature, prepared with gallic acid, displays a concentration of 9 mg/mL