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Table 1 Experimental results of samples taken from pages 1, 27 and 32 of Norwich worsted pattern book (c. 1790–1793), accession number 65 × 695.3. Winterthur Museum, Garden and Library

From: Multi-instrumental approach with archival research to study the Norwich textile industry in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries: the example of a Norwich pattern book dated c. 1790–1793

Colour Sample number* Page Dye componentsa Possible XRF resultsb
Paper N/A 1, 27, 32 N/A N/A Fe, Co, K, Ca, As
Pink 1* 1 car, pur Cochineal, madder Sn, Cu, Ca, Zn, S, Fe, K
15* 1 car, dcII Cochineal Sn, Ca, Fe
443 32 car Cochineal Sn, Ca
Red 3* 1 ali’, car, pur, ppur Madder, cochineal Sn, Ca, Zn, Cu, S, Fe
10* 1 ali, fka, car, pur Madder, cochineal Ca, Sn
367 27 car, fka Cochineal Cu
445 32 car, dcII Cochineal Sn, Ca, Fe, Ti
11* 1 lut’, api’, lut, api Weld Fe, Sn
370 27 lut, api Weld Fe, Co, K, Ca, As
Yellow 372 27 lut, api Weld Fe, Co, K, Ca, As
436 32 lut, api Weld Fe ≈ Cu
447 32 mor, rut Old fustic Ca
Orange 7* 1 ea, fis, sul, lut’, api’ Tannin source, young fustic, weld Ca, Fe
440 32 fis, sul, lut’, api’, quer Young fustic, weld, quercitron Ca, Fe
4* 1 orc, in Orchil, indigo plant Ca ≈ Fe, S, Cu, Zn
Purple 5* 1 orc Orchil Sn, Zn, Cu, K, Ni, S, Fe ≈ Ca
14* 1 orc Orchil Zn
16* 1 orc Orchil Ca, Zn
374 27 No dye components detected   
378 27 orc Orchil Zn, Ca
435 32 orchil, mor, in Orchil, indigo plant, old fustic Fe, Ca, Zn
437 32 orc, in Orchil, indigo plant Fe, Cu, Ca, Zn
439 32 No dye components detected   Fe, Ca, Zn, Cu
444 32 orc Orchil Fe, Ca, Zn, Cu
446 32 orc, in Orchil, indigo plant Zn, Fe
Brown 9* 1 quer, in Quercitron oak, indigo plant Fe, Co, K, Ca, As
376 27 orc, ea Tannin source, orchil Cu
438 32 ea Tannin source Fe, Cu
Blue 8* 1 in Indigo plant Fe, Cu, As
13* 1 in Indigo plant Fe
371 27 in, orc Indigo plant, orchil Ca, Zn, Cu,
379 27 in Indigo plant Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca
437 32 in Indigo plant Cu, Fe
443 32 No dye components detected   Fe, Ca, Cu
446 32 in, orc Indigo plant, orchil Fe, Ca, Cu
447 32 in Indigo plant Fe, Ca, Zn
Light Blue 436 32 in, ir Indigo  
440 32 in, ir Indigo Cu
2* 1 ea, quer, in Quercitron oak, tannin source, indigo plant Cu
6* 1 in Indigo plant, no yellow components detected Fe, Ca, Cu, S
12* 1 quer, in Quercitron oak, tannin source, indigo plant Fe
367 27 ea, mor Tannin source, old fustic Fe, Ca, Cu, S
Green 368 27 ea, mor’ Tannin source, old fustic Fe, Cu
370 27 ea, mor, in Tannin source, old fustic, indigo plant Fe, Cu
372 27 No dye components detected   Ca, Fe, Cu
377 27 quer, in, mor’ Quercitron oak, indigo plant, old fustic Fe
442 32 in Indigo plant Fe ≈ Cu
  1. Winterthur Museum, Garden and Library
  2. *An asterisk next to the sample number indicates textile is glazed; italics denote a weft thread sample
  3. aIn-indigotin; ir-indirubin; quer-quercetin; rut-rutin; lut-luteolin; api-apigenin; mor-morin; fis-fisetin; sul-sulfuretin; ali-alizarin; pur-purpurin; ppur-pseudopurpurin; fka-flavokermesic acid; car-carminic acid; dcII-unidentified anthraquinoid compound present in coccid dyes [15]; orc-orcein; ea-ellagic acid, (’ indicates the corresponding glucoside)
  4. bAll samples showed Fe, Co, K, Ca and As. Major element X-ray lines are listed