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Table 1 The evaluation methodology which has been followed for the structural rehabilitation of Abu Serga church

From: 3D finite element coupled analysis model for geotechnical and complex structural problems of historic masonry structures: conservation of Abu Serga church, Cairo, Egypt

1 Heritage, architectural values of Abu Serga church
2 Urban studies
3 Documentation of existing state, through architectural studies, survey and structural description of Abu Serga church (surveying and old documents)
4 Identification of the construction and building materials through the analysis of chemical, engineering characteristics of the construction and building materials such as stone, brick and marble (lab and in-situ)
5 Recording the damage through the Survey of the crack pattern and deformation aspects of Abu Serga church structure
6 Monitoring system is important to find out if the movements of the structures and underneath soil is stabilized or evolutionary. From ruler for crack width, gypsum marks “tell-tales” to the advanced displacement transducers to 3D optical microscope
7 Geotechnical investigations of foundation; (soil and foundation) soil investigations in order to discover the stratigraphy, geotechnical properties of soil layers and in particular the fluctuations of ground water table (GWT)
8 ERT; electrical resistance tomography
9 GPR; ground penetrating radar
10 Elastic base shear force
11 Seismic hazard analysis, which comprised (a) Some information on strong earthquakes in Egypt; (Dahshur 1992 and Aqaba 1995 EQ) (b) Short seismic characterization on the area where the church is located: (historical seismicity, maximum intensity), (c) probabilistic hazard assessment (PGA)
12 Geophysical campaign, which comprised (a) P-wave refraction to determine the (Vp) of soil (b) Refraction-Microtremor (ReMi method) to determine the shear strength of soil in term of (Vs)
13 Frequency characterization of the soil and structure of the church using Microtremors (a) Fundamental frequency of vibration of the ground (ground response) (b) Fundamental frequency of vibration of the building (building response) (c) Response spectrum of the building
14 3 D FEM numerical static and seismic analysis; taking into account the characteristics of the soil and structure in order to evaluate the actual safety levels and the weakest zones and factors of safety
15 Results of technical assessment of Abu Serga church
16 Design of intervention and structural retrofitting of Abu Serga church and design of rehabilitation works)
17 Restoration project Implementations (Upgrading of foundations, repair and strengthening of degradation materials and structural elements)
18 Improvement of safety against earthquakes and other geo-environmental hazards)