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Table 1 Position and attribution of the marker bands for binders and selected blue, white and green pigments

From: Non-invasive identification of paint binders in illuminated manuscripts by ER-FTIR spectroscopy: a systematic study of the influence of different pigments on the binders’ characteristic spectral features

Pigment/binder Wavenumber (cm−1) Assignment Distortion type
Gum Arabic, polysaccharide 3350 ν(O–H) Derivative
1604 δ(O–H) Derivative
1020 ν(C–O) Inverted
Egg yolk, lipid + proteinaceous 4399, 4266 ν + δ(C–H)  
1740 ν(C=O) Derivative
Egg white, proteinaceous 1693 AI Derivative
1560 AII Derivative
Whole egg, lipid + proteinaceous 1740 ν(C=O) Derivative
1693 AI Derivative
1560 AII Derivative
Natural ultramarine, Na3Ca(Al3Si3O12)S 2343 ν3(CO2)  
≈ 2100 2ν(Si–O)  
1016 ν(Si–O) Inverted
French (synthetic) ultramarine, Na3Ca(Al3Si3O12)S ≈ 2100 2ν(Si–O)  
1022 ν(Si–O) Inverted
Azurite, Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 4375, 4252 3 and ν + δ(O–H)  
2589, 2550, 2501 ν1 + ν3 and/or 2ν2 + ν4  
1881 ν1 + ν4  
1500 ν3 Inverted
1090 ν1 Derivative
820 ν2 Derivative
744 ν4 Derivative
563, 505 ν(Cu–O) Inverted
Smalt, Cobalt-bearing silicate glass ≈2100 2ν(Si–O)  
1083 ν(Si–O) Inverted
Calcite, CaCO3 4268 3  
≈2514 + 2591 ν1 + ν3 and/or 2ν2 + ν4  
1796 ν1 + ν4  
≈ 1560 ν3 Inverted
≈ 881 ν2 Derivative
≈ 715 ν4 Derivative
Lead white (hydrocerussite), Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 4340 3 and ν + δ(O–H)  
3566 ν(O–H) Derivative
2428 ν1 + ν3 and/or 2ν2 + ν4  
1740 ν1 + ν4  
1415 ν3 Inverted
834 ν2 Derivative
690 ν4 Derivative
Gypsum, CaSO4∙2H2O 5136, 5064 sh ν13(O–H) + ν2(O–H)  
3548, 3500, 3435 ν(O–H) Derivative
2233 3, ν2 + νL H2O  
2124 ν1 + ν3  
1146 ν3 Inverted
674 ν4 Inverted
Malachite, Cu2CO3(OH)2 4401, 4252 3 and ν + δ(O–H)  
3423 ν(O–H)  
2541, 2422 ν1 + ν3 and/or 2ν2 + ν4,o  
1798 ν1 + ν4  
1466, 1431 ν3 Inverted
1081 ν1 Derivative
952 δ(O–H)  
837 ν2 Derivative
452 ν(Cu–O) Inverted
Green earth, K(Mg, Fe2+)(Fe3+, Al)[Si4O10](OH)2 3575, 3673 νO–H  
≈ 2100 2ν(Si–O)  
1029 ν(Si–O) Inverted
Lead–tin yellow, Pb2SnO4 569 ν(Pb2SnO4) Inverted
504 ν(Pb2SnO4) Inverted
459 ν(Pb2SnO4) Inverted
427 ν(Pb2SnO4) Inverted
Minium, Pb3O4 525 ν(Pb–O) Inverted
435 ν(Pb–O) Inverted
  1. The data refers to the spectra collected in ER-FTIR mode. The pigments’ assignments are related to the paintouts bound in egg white. Combination and overtones do not show any distortions; when the absorptions are affected by derivative-like distortion, the wavenumber is related to the inflection point; sh stands for shoulder. Attributions are based on previous literature, cited in the text