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Table 1 Summary of the observational study design, including the outcome and exposure variables assessed according to two levels, structure and components, and the data source

From: Accumulation of wear and tear in archival and library collections. Part II: an epidemiological study

Variable Level
1. Structure (inventory number) 2. Component (single sheet)
A. Stack loose records B. Bindings  
Outcome
 Failure
  Number failed sheets (total) Visual observation (counting) Visual observation
  Number failed sheets (failure 1) Visual observation (counting)
  Number failed sheets (failure 2) Visual observation (counting)
  Number failed sheets (failure 3) Visual observation (counting)
  Failed yes/no Visual observation
  Failed part Visual observation
  Failure category (0–3) Visual observation
  Failure on fold Visual observation
Exposure
 Design
  Thickness (mm) Physical measurement Physical measurement Physical measurement
  Weight (g) Physical measurement Physical measurement
  Height (mm) Physical measurement Physical measurement
  Width (mm) Physical measurement Physical measurement
  Number of sheets (total) Visual observation (counting)
  Type of binding Visual observation
  Binding material Visual observation
 Maintenance
  Protection Visual observation Visual observation
  Prior owner Collection management system Collection management system Collection management system
  Presence of fold Visual observation
 Usage
  Number requisitions in reading room since 1998 Collection management system Collection management system Collection management system
  Number years inventory available to visitors Collection management system Collection management system
  Date (age) Collection management system Collection management system Collection management system
 Manufacture
  Paper type Near infrared spectrometry (SurveNIR)
  pH
  Degree of polymerization
  Tensile strength (N)
  Tensile strength folded (N)
  Protein content (%)
  Rosin content (mg/g)
  Lignin content (mg/g)