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Table 5 Principal conventional techniques applied to the analysis of paint stratigraphy

From: Combined photoluminescence and Raman microscopy for the identification of modern pigments: explanatory examples on cross-sections from Russian avant-garde paintings

Technique Identifies Lateral resolution Sample preparation Possible damages
SEM–EDX Elements (Z > 10) ~ 100 nm Metallization Surface cleaning
ATR-FTIR Organic and Inorganic compounds 1–10 μm None Indentation
Raman Organic and Inorganic compounds 1–10 μm None Nonea
Micro-TRPL Luminescent compounds 1–10 μm None Nonea
  1. The main material identification, lateral resolution, sample preparation requirements and possible damages associated to the measurements are reported
  2. aRaman and PL applications do not cause any damages to the sample as long as the powder density is kept far below the damage threshold [39]