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Table 2 List of main pigments used in architectural heritage characterized by Raman spectroscopy

From: Recent progress in instrumental techniques for architectural heritage materials

Color Pigment name Chemical formula Band wavenumber (cm−1) and relative intensity Chromophore Sampling site Refs.
Black Ivory black Ca3(PO4)2 + C +MgSO4 961m; 1325vs; 1580vs C Wall painting [143, 144]
Lamp black C 1325vs; 1580vs C Wall painting [145]
Blue Azurite Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 145w; 180w; 250m; 284w; 335w; 403vs; 545w; 746sh; 767m; 839m; 940w; 1098m; 1432m; 1459w; 1580m; 1623vw Cu2+ Marble monument/wall painting [146]
Cerulean blue CoO·nSnO2 495m; 532s; 674vs Co2+ Wall painting [147]
Cobalt blue CoO·Al2O3 203vs; 512vs Co2+ Glazed tile decorative material [148]
Egyptian blue CaCuSi4O10 114m; 137m; 200w; 230w; 358m; 377m; 430vs; 475m; 571w; 597vw; 762w; 789w; 992w; 1012w; 1040w; 1086s Cu2+ Wall painting [136, 149]
Lazurite Na8[Al6Si6O24]Sn 258w; 548vs; 822w; 1096m S3 Wooden tower/monstrance [16, 133]
Posnjakite CuSO4·3Cu(OH)2·H2O 135vw; 208vw; 278vw; 327vw; 467w; 612w; 983vs; 1092vw; 1139vw Cu2+ Copper-based alloy/wall painting [150, 151]
Prussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3·14-16H2O 282vw; 538vw; 2102m; 2154vs Fe3+ Damaged stuccowork/wooden materials [152]
Smalt CoO·nSiO2 462vs; 917m Co2+ Wall painting [136]
Green Atacamite CuCl2·3Cu(OH)2 122m; 149m; 360w; 513vs; 821m; 846s; 911s; 974s Cu2+ Wall painting [153]
Chromium oxide Cr2O3 221vw; 308w; 349w; 552vs; 611w Cr3+ Wall painting [154]
Cobalt green CoO·nZnO 328br; 434vs; 471m; 555s Co2+ Wall painting [155]
Chrysocolla CuSiO3·nH2O 274w; 331w; 429w; 460w; 674w; 744w; 906vw; 938vw Cu2+ Wall painting [156]
Green earth Variations on K[(Al3+, Fe3+)(Fe2+, Mg2+)] 1194w; 1225m; 1270w; 1350s; 1459w; 1486m; 1600s Fe2+, Fe3+ Wall painting [157]
Malachite Cu2(CO)3(OH)2 155s; 178s; 217m; 268m; 354m; 433vs; 509m; 533s; 558w; 757vw; 1051m; 1085m; 1492vs Cu2+ Wall painting/glass [19, 158]
Verdigris Cu(C2H3O2)2·2Cu(OH)2 139vw; 181w; 231w; 328w; 392w; 512w; 618w; 680w; 939s; 1351w; 1417m; 1441m; 1552w; 2937vs; 2988m; 3026w Cu2+ Stone architecture [159]
Scheele’s green Cu(AsO2)2 136s; 201m; 236w; 275m; 370vs; 445w; 495m; 537vw; 657vw; 780s Cu2+ Polychrome decoration of architectural facade [160]
Orange Mars orange Fe2O3 224vs; 291vs; 407m; 494w; 608m Fe3+ Glazed tile decorative material [161]
Red Litharge PbO 145vs; 285vw; 336w Pb2+ Wall painting [162]
Cinnabar α-HgS 544vs; 478s; 390w; 312w; 227w; 161w Hg2+ Stone architecture/wall painting [163, 164]
Realgar α-As4S4 142w; 164w; 171w; 182vs; 192s; 220s; 233m; 327vw; 342m; 354s; 367w; 375w As2+ Wall painting [165]
Red lead Pb3O4 122vs; 149m; 223w; 313w; 340vw; 390w; 480vw; 548vs Pb2+, Pb4+ Wall painting [136, 166]
Vermilion HgS 252vs; 282w; 343m Hg2+ Polychrome decoration of wooden structure [167]
Red ochre Fe2O3 + clay + silica 220vs; 286vs; 402m; 491w; 601w Fe3+ Stone architecture/wall painting [54, 166]
Yellow Barium yellow BaCrO4 352m; 355sh; 403w; 427vw; 863vs; 901m Cr6+ Wooden tower [16]
Cadmium yellow CdS 304vs; 609s Cd2+ Wall painting [168]
Chrome yellow PbCrO4 338w; 360s; 372m; 403w; 841vs Pb2+, Cr4+ Wall painting [145]
Cobalt yellow K3[Co(NO2)6]·xH2O 179m; 274s; 304vs; 821vs; 836m; 1257w; 1326vs; 1398w Co2+ Wall painting [168]
Gamboge C38H44O8 and C29H36O6 1215w; 1246m; 1265w; 1330w; 1433m; 1592s; 1633m Gambocic acid Wall painting [150]
Indian yellow MgC19H16O11·5H2O 484w; 610w; 631w; 697w; 772vw; 811w; 877vw; 1009vw; 1047w; 1097w; 1127s; 1178m; 1218m; 1266vw; 1345s; 1414w; 1476s; 1503s; 1599vs Euxanthic acid Wall painting [18]
Lead tin yellow Pb2SnO4 129vs; 196s; 275w; 291w; 303w; 379w; 457m; 525w Pb2+, Sn4+ Glazed tile [148]
Massicot PbO 143vs; 289s; 385w Pb2+ Wall painting [63]
Naples yellow Pb2Sb2O7 140vs; 329m; 448w Pb2+, Sb5+ Wall painting [18]
Orpiment As2S3 136w; 154s; 181vw; 202w; 220vw; 230vw; 292m; 309s; 353vs; 381w As3+ Monstrance [133]
Saffron C20H24O4 1165m; 1210w; 1282vw; 1536vs Crocetin Wall painting [169]
Zinc yellow ZnCrO4 343m; 357sh; 370w; 409w; 772w; 872vs; 892m; 941m Cr6+ Copper-alloy monuments [170]
White Barium white BaSO4 453m; 461w; 616w; 647w; 988vs Stucco surface [171]
Zinc white ZnO 331w; 383w; 438vs Stone surface [172]
Lead white 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2 667vw; 665vw; 687vw; 829vw; 1050vs Stone surface [173]
Bone white Ca3(PO4)2 431w; 590w; 961vs; 1046w; 1071vw Wall painting [174]
Chalk CaCO3 157vw; 282vw; 1088vs Stone architecture [175]
Gypsum CaSO4·2H2O 181w; 414m; 493w; 619vw; 670vw; 1007vs; 1132m Stone architecture [36]
Lithopone ZnS + BaSO4 216w; 276vw; 342m; 453m; 461w; 616w; 647w; 988vs Wall painting [165]
  1. s strong, m medium, w weak, v very, sh shoulder, br broad