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Table 1 Summary of material assignments in Apparition and Head within an Aureole

From: Odilon Redon’s noir drawings: characterization of materials and methods using noninvasive imaging and spectroscopies

  Color Material assignment MA-XRF Raman FORS
Apparition Black 1 Fabricated chalk Fe, Ca, Ti, K, Si Carbon
Black 2 Bone black pastel Ca, Fe, P, S Carbon
Black 3 Carbon black pastel Fe, Ti, Si Carbon
Black 4 Carbon black (and aniline black) pastel Cu Carbon
Black 5* Vine charcoal Carbon
Black 6 Compressed charcoal Carbon
Yellow Yellow iron oxide and calcite pastel Ca, Fe, K, S Calcite Yellow iron oxide
Head within an Aureole Black A Carbon black (and aniline black) pastel Fe, Cr, Pb, Ca, Si, S Carbon
Black B* Vine charcoal Carbon
Pink A Vermilion and calcite pastel Ca, Hg, S Vermilion, calcite
Pink B Alizarin and calcite pastel Ca, S Calcite Alizarin
Blue Ultramarine pastel S, Si, K Ultramarine
  1. Assignments in italics are suggested by analysis rather than confirmed. Materials marked with * were distinguished by infrared RIS with increasing reflectance at longer wavelength. Major elements detected by MA-XRF are in bold italics (see Additional file 1 for spectra)