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Table 1 Overview of all sampled paintings

From: Jan Steen’s ground layers analysed with Principal Component Analysis

Title Abbreviated title Date Support Dimensions (h × w, cm) Inv. number Braun number Collection Composition of ground layer (1 is bottom ground layer)
Peasants Dancing at an Inn Bh 1646–48 Panel 38.5 × 56.5 0553 5 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, chalk, red earth, fine black
The Tooth-Puller Tt 1651 Canvas 32.5 × 26.7 0165 32 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk, lead white, umber, fine black
2. Chalk, lead white, umber, fine black
3. Chalk, lead white, umber, fine black
The Death of Ananias An 1651 Panel 45.7 × 37.8 n/a 33 Matthiesen gallery London 1. Chalk
2. Chalk, lead white, umber, red earth, coarse black, clay particles
The Village Wedding Db 1653 Canvas 64 × 81 2314 56 Boijmans van Beuningen 1. Chalk, lead white, umber
Village Fair Dk 1650–51 Panel 47.2 × 66 0664 81 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, orange earth, charcoal black, umber
The Fortune Teller Wz 1650–54 Canvas 73 × 59.3 1111 B52 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk, lead white, umber, fine black
The Quack Kz 1650–60 Panel 37.5 × 52 sk-a-387 89 Rijksmuseum Amsterdam 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, umber
Adolf en Catharina Croeser, known as ‘The Burgomaster of Delft and his Daughter’ Bd 1655 Canvas 106 × 96 sk-a-4981 78 Rijksmuseum Amsterdam 1. Chalk, lead white, umber
The Baker Arent Oostwaard and his wife, Catharina Keizerswaard Bo 1658 Panel 37.7 × 31.5 sk-a-390 102 Rijksmuseum Amsterdam 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, umber, quartz
Portrait of Jacoba Maria van Wassenaer (1654–1683), known as ‘The Poultry Yard’ Hh 1660 Canvas 106.6 × 80.8 0166 113 Mauritshuis 1. Lead white, yellow earth, red earth, orange earth, fine black, clay particles, dolomite particles
2. Lead white, orange earth, red earth, umber, fine black, coarse black, clay particles, dolomite particles
3. Lead white, yellow, orange and red earth, charcoal black, dolomite particles
The Oyster meal Om 1660 Canvas 102.8 × 133.9 n/a 114 Private collection 1. Clay: red iron particles, umber, silicates and titanium particles in matrix of aluminum, silicium, potassium, iron
Girl Eating Oysters Oe 1658–60 Panel 20.5 × 14.5 0818 92 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, umber, chalk
‘Easy come, easy go’ Sg 1661 Canvas 104 × 79 2527 (OK) 143 Boijmans van Beuningen 1. Chalk, lead white, umber, bone black, quartz
2. Lead white, fine black, orange earth, chalk
A Woman at her Toilet Mt 1663 Panel 65.8 × 53 RCIN 404804 178 Royal Collection Trust 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, yellow earth, brown earth, umber, chalk
The Dancing Couple Dc 1663 Canvas 102.5 × 142.5 1942.9.81 180 National Gallery of Art Washington 1. Chalk, red earth, yellow earth, umber, charcoal black, bone black, lead white
2. Lead white, charcoal black, chalk, red earth
The Alchemist Al 1668 Canvas 106 × 82 n/a 249A Private collection 1. Charcoal black, bone black, umber, red and brown earth, lead white, chalk, smalt, green earth, clay particles
2. Lead white, yellow earth, red earth, bone black, charcoal black, chalk, smalt, yellow and red lake
3. Lead white, bone black, yellow earth, green earth
The Merry Family Vh 1668 Canvas 110.5 × 141 sk-c-229 295 Rijksmuseum Amsterdam 1. Yellow, orange and red earth, fine black, chalk, copper particles, smalt, quartz, clay particles, organic brown, umber, vivianite, vermillion, lead tin yellow
The Sick Girl Zm ca. 1660 Panel 58 × 46.5 0167 203 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, chalk, red earth, umber
The Doctor’s Visit Do 1665–68 Panel 60.5 × 48.5 0168 318 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk
2. Yellow and brown earth, lead white, chalk, charcoal black, smalt, copper particles
A twelfth night feast: ‘The King Drinks’ Kd ca. 1661 Panel 40.4 × 54.5 RCIN 407489 149 Royal Collection Trust 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, red earth, umber, chalk, clay particles
Woman Playing the Cittern Sv ca. 1662 Panel 31 × 27.5 0779 132 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, chalk, yellow and brown earth, umber, fine black, red lead
‘As the Old Sing, So Pipe the Young’ Zo 1663–65 Canvas 84 × 92.5 0169 200 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, chalk, umber, fine black
The Sick Woman Zv 1663–66 Canvas 76 × 63.5 sk-c-230 259 Rijksmuseum Amsterdam 1. Chalk, yellow earth, brown earth, umber, fine black
The Life of Man Lm ca. 1665 Canvas 68.2 × 82 0170 261 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk, red earth, umber, coarse black, clay particles
2. Chalk, read earth, umber, coarse black
3. Lead white, yellow earth, umber, fine black, chalk
Interior of a Tavern, with Cardplayers and a Violin Player Hv ca. 1665 Canvas 81.9 × 70.6 RCIN 405825 278 Royal Collection Trust 1. Clay: red iron particles, umber, silicates and titanium particles in matrix of aluminum, silicium, potassium, iron mixed with chalk, and yellow earth. In tabel: yellow earth, umber, chalk, dolomite, quartz, clay particles
‘The Caudle makers’ Km 1665–70 Panel 41 × 31.5 0920 95 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, chalk, yellow earth, umber, fine black
The Marriage of Tobias and Sarah Hu ca. 1667 Canvas 131 × 172 313 281 Herzog Anton Ullrich Museum Braunschweig 1. Lead white, chalk, red earth, charcoal black, black shale, clay particles, gypsum, barium sulfate particles
Cardplayers in a Brothel Kb 1663–65 Panel 38 × 51 n/a B-A562 Private Collection 1. Chalk, gypsum
2. Lead white, red earth, brown earth, umber, chalk
‘As the Old Sing, So Pipe the Young’ Ss 1668–70 Canvas 134 × 163 0742 201 Mauritshuis 1. Lead white, lead tin yellow, umber, red earth, chalk, bone black, red and yellow lake, vermillion, smalt, clay particles, quartz
Moses and the Pharaoh’s Crown Mk ca. 1670 Canvas 86 × 72 1167 328 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk, lead white, red earth, yellow earth, umber, bone black, clay particles
2. Lead white, smalt, red earth
3. Lead white, red earth, yellow earth, umber, bone black, yellow lake, clay particles
The Marriage of Tobias and Sarah Ts 1667–72 Canvas 80 × 103.2 n/a 309 Private Collection 1. Chalk, quartz, fine black, yellow earth, red earth, dolomite particles, clay particles
2. Lead white, chalk, red lead, fine black, yellow earth, red earth, quartz
3. Lead white, fine black, yellow earth, red earth, quartz
Sacrifice of Iphigenia Oi 1671 Canvas 135 × 173 JS112 342 Leiden Collection 1. Lead white, chalk, red earth, umber, clay particles
Fighting Cardplayers (“Het Geweldig Krakeel”) Gk 1671 Panel 51.7 × 71.2 NK2167 345 Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands 1. Chalk
2. Yellow earth, umber, lead white, chalk, clay particles, quartz
Peasant Wedding Bb 1672 Panel 38.5 × 50 sk-a-388 349 Rijksmuseum Amsterdam 1. Chalk
2. Lead white, yellow earth, umber, chalk
A Village Revel Hm 1672–3 Canvas 110.4 × 147 RCIN 405611 354 Royal Collection Trust 1. Chalk, red earth, gypsum
2. Red earth, lead white, chalk, umber, clay particles
Christ Expelling the Traders from the Temple Cw 1675 Canvas 79.5 × 109 B667 363 Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden 1. Lead white, umber, red earth, yellow earth, bone black, chalk, quartz, clay particles, smalt, vermillion
Merrymaking in a tavern with a couple dancing Hd ca. 1670 Canvas 61.7 × 75.1 RCIN 404813 277 Royal Collection Trust 1. Chalk, yellow earth, organic brown
‘A Pig Belongs in the Sty’ Wv 1674–78 Canvas 86 × 72 0736 362 Mauritshuis 1. Chalk, lead white, red earth, yellow earth, umber, fine black, bone black
The Mocking of Samson Si 1675–76 Canvas 65 × 82 338 365 Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen 1. Lead white, yellow, orange, red and brown earth, dolomite particles, clay particles
2. Lead white, fine black, brown earth, umber, red lead, chalk