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Table 1 Characteristics of scanning systems used to capture painting topography, including: the scanning technique, modalities captured by the 3D scanners, resolution, scanner field-of-view (or scan tile), orientation of the painting, size of the automated scanning range, the flexibility to scan large areas (yes or no), scanning speed, and a short description of the scan setup

From: Comparison of three 3D scanning techniques for paintings, as applied to Vermeer’s ‘Girl with a Pearl Earring’

  Scanning technique Scan modalities Resolution (XY) Accuracy (Z) Field of view (scan tile) Orient. Autom. range Flex. range\(^{\mathrm{a}}\) Scan speed Scan setup
Top. Colour
Laser triangulation
Blais et al. [9, 10] RGB laser spot triangulation \(\times\) \(\times\) \(60\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(10\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) N/A v \(40\,\hbox {mm}\times 120\,\hbox {mm}\) y \(\approx 23\hbox { h}/\hbox {m}^{2}\) Tripod, manual positioning
Verus Art [11, 12] RGB laser spot triangulation \(\times\) \(\times\) \(100\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) N/A N/A v \(\approx 1\hbox { m}\times 1\hbox { m}{}^{\mathrm{b}}\) n(?) N/A Automated XY-frame(?)
Factum Arte [13, 14] Laser line triangulation \(\times\)   \(100\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(25\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) N/A v \(480\,\hbox {mm}\times 480\,\hbox {mm}\) y \(4\hbox { h}/\hbox {m}^{2}\) Partial XY-automation, manual positioning on larger frame
Del Sette et al. [24] Laser spot triangulation \(\times\)   \(50\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) (X), \(20\,\hbox {mm}\) (Y) \(20\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) N/A v \(300\,\hbox {mm}\times 300\,\hbox {mm}\) y \(0.8\hbox { h}/\hbox {m}^{2}\) Partial XY-automation, manual positioning on larger frame
Van Gogh Museum [15] Laser triangulation \(\times\)   N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Structured light projection
Akca et al. [16] Structured light projection \(\times\) \(\times\) \(60\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(15\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(60\,\hbox {mm}\times 80\,\hbox {mm}\) v Not automated y N/A Tripod, manual positioning
Breuckmann [18] Structured light projection \(\times\) \(\times\) \(40\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(5\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(\approx 100\,\hbox {mm}\times 125\,\hbox {mm}\) v Not automated y \(\approx 5\hbox { h}/\hbox {m}^{2}\) Tripod, manual positioning
Karaszewski et al. [17] Structured light projection \(\times\) \(\times\) \(\approx 60\,\upmu \hbox {m}^{\mathrm{c}}\) N/A \(50\,\hbox {mm} \times 50\,\hbox {mm}\) v \(\approx 2\,\hbox {m}\times 2\,\hbox {m}\) n \(\approx 270\hbox { h}/\hbox {m}^{2\mathrm{d}}\) XY-automation, manual Z-alignment
Zaman et al. [19, 26] \(^{\mathrm{e}}\) Structured light projection \(\times\) \(\times\) \(50\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(38\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(\approx 170\,\hbox {mm}\times 100\,\hbox {mm}\) v 1 m (X) y \(5\hbox { h}/\hbox {m}^{2}\) Linear automation (X) on tripod, manual positioning per row
Palma et al. [25] Structured light projection \(\times\)   \(500\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) N/A \(1100\,\hbox {mm}\times 900\,\hbox {mm}\) v Not automated y N/A Tripod, manual positioning
Focus variation microscopy
Van den Berg et al. [23] Focus variation microscopy \(\times\) \(\times\) \(\approx 1\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(2.5\,\upmu \hbox {m}^{\rm f}\) \(\approx 1\,\hbox {mm}\times 2\,\hbox {mm}\) h None used n N/A Microscope stage, small samples
Cacciari et al. [22] Focus variation microscopy \(\times\) \(\times\) \(\approx 60\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) unknown \(\approx 1\,\hbox {mm}\times 1.3\,\hbox {mm}\) h Not automated n N/A XY-frame, re-positioning(?)
  1. aThe flexibility of the scanning range is judged negatively, if the frame limits the size of the painting to be scanned, or in the case of using a cartesian frame, which is deemed difficult to extend or move
  2. bEstimated based on video footage of scanner
  3. cEstimated based on projector resolution and specified field-of-view
  4. dReported time includes data processing
  5. eThis system can be regarded as the predecessor of the High-Res and Std-Res 3D scan systems used in this case study
  6. fAlthough advertised at this level of accuracy, the authors mention that this is probably not realistic based on their findings