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Table 2 Specifications of 3D scanning systems used in this case study, including: system design, scan modalities, system components, computational hardware used, resolution, scan area, settings used, and the configuration of the setup

From: Comparison of three 3D scanning techniques for paintings, as applied to Vermeer’s ‘Girl with a Pearl Earring’

System model MS-OCT Std-Res 3D scan High-Res 3D scan 3D digital microscopy White light confocal profilometry
Custom Custom, 2nd gen. Custom design, 3rd gen. Hirox RH-2000 Hirox Nano Point Scanner
Scan modalities(s)
Topography \(\times\) \(\times\) \(\times\) \(\times\) \(\times\)
Colour   \(\times\) \(\times\) \(\times\)  
Stratigraphy \(\times\)     
Gloss   \(\times\)    
Imaging component(s) 1 2 2 1 1
Camera model N/A Nikon D800E Canon 5DS-R Hirox JYFEL
Lens model Thorlabs LSM04-BB Nikkor PC-E 85 mm Canon TS-E 90 mm MXB-5000REZ at 140\(\times\) NP3
Lens extension tube(s) N/A N/A Canon EF25 II N/A N/A
Filter(s) N/A 3 Hoya HD polarisers 3 Canon polarisers N/A N/A
Illumination component(s) 1 1 1 2 1
Type SLD Projector Projector Fiber optics LED Fiber optics LED
Model/type N/A Acer X113H AXAA M6 Hirox JYFEL
Illumination intensity N/A 2800 lm 1200 lm Raking light at 100% and dark field at 10% 100%
Computational hardware
Computer Dell T1700 ASUSTeK ASUSTeK Apple iMac Apple iMac
Processor Intel Xeon E3-1271v3 Intel Core i7 Intel Core i7 Intel Core i5 Intel Core i5
RAM memory 16 GB 128 Gb 128 Gb 32 GB 32 GB
Memory 1 TB SSD 500 Gb SSD 500 Gb SSD 1 TB SSD 1 TB SSD
Scan sampling resolution
Lateral resolution (XY) \(8.5\,\upmu \hbox {m}\times 67.6\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(25\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(7\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(1.1\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(2.6\,\upmu \hbox {m}\)
Depth resolution (Z) \(3.0\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(27.5\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) \(17.5\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) N/A \(<.150\,\upmu \hbox {m}^{\mathrm{a}}\)
Scan area
Tile size (XY) \(5\hbox { mm}\times 5\hbox { mm}\) \(170\hbox { mm}\times 100\hbox { mm}\) \(60\hbox { mm}\times 40\hbox { mm}\) \(2.1\hbox { mm}\times 1.31\hbox { mm}\) N/A
Depth-of-field \(1.87\,\hbox {mm}\) \(\approx 8.5\,\hbox {mm}\) \(\approx 1\,\hbox {mm}\) \(0.05\,\hbox {mm}\) \(1.40\,\hbox {mm}\)
Automated range (XY) \(0.2\hbox { m}\times 0.2\hbox { m}\) \(1.3\hbox { m}\times 1.3\hbox { m}\) \(1.0\hbox { m}\times 1.0\hbox { m}\) \(0.5\hbox { m}\times 0.5\hbox { m}\) \(0.5\hbox { m}\times 0.5\hbox { m}\)
Settings
ISO N/A 100 100 Gain 0 dB N/A
Aperture N/A 1/16 1/16 Full open N/A
Shutter speed N/A 0.5 s 3.2 s 1/250 s N/A
Other parameters N/A N/A N/A Edge \(=\) 9, Sat. \(=\) 2, Colour \(=\) 2 N/A
Images per tile 1024 26 26 \(\approx\) 50 for \(450\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) top-bottom range N/A
Tile overlap N/A 41% (X), 30% (Y) 20% (X), 25% (Y) 30% N/A
Configuration
Painting orientation Vertical Vertical Vertical Horizontal Horizontal
Imaging distance (l) \(\simeq 42\,\hbox {mm}\) 440 mm 175 mm 10 mm 12 mm
Imaging angle (\(\beta\)) \(\approx 5.0^{\circ }\) \(40^{\circ }\) \(21.5^{\circ }\) \(0^{\circ }\) \(0^{\circ }\)
  1. The latter specifies the orientation of the painting during scanning, the imaging distance l, which is the closest point of the system to the painting’s surface, and the imaging angle \(\beta\), describing the angle between the painting’s surface normal and the optical axis of the imaging components
  2. aStated depth accuracy by manufacturer