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Table 3 Key observations for trials with emulsifiers, gels and cosmetic sponge options, prepared or combined with water only (either deionised or adjusted water 6:6), tested on the mock-up samples

From: Facilitating the conservation treatment of Eva Hesse’s Addendum through practice-based research, including a comparative evaluation of novel cleaning systems

 Papier-mâché: [p(EA-MMA) + PVAc]Ropes: [p(EA-MMA) + PVAc + p(nBA-MMA)]
ProsConsProsCons
Agarose gelEasy application and removal
Optimal surface contact
Poor inherent surface cleaning
Release of water onto the surface
Not tested due to rigidityTemperature of application higher than glass transition temperature of the uppermost p(nBA-MMA) coating
PVAc-Borax gelEasy application and removal
Good initial surface contact
Minimal cleaning efficacy
Loss of contact with the surface
Not compatible with surfactant concentrations higher than 0.5% w/w
Easy application and removal
Good initial surface contact
Minimal cleaning efficacy
Loss of contact with the surface
Not compatible with surfactant concentrations higher than 0.5% w/w
Xanthan gum
(gel only)
Optimal surface contact
Moderate inherent cleaning efficacy
Modifiable activity
Small areas at a time
Several clearance steps required
Time-consuming
Optimal surface contact
Promising cleaning efficacy
Modifiable activity
Small areas at a time
Several clearance steps required
Mechanical action required
Time-consuming
Shin-Etsu KSG350z emulsionOptimal surface contact
Moderate inherent cleaning efficacy
Modifiable activity
Small areas at a time
Several clearance steps required
Time-consuming
Clearance with silicone solvents
Requires portable extraction and personal protective equipment (PPE)
Optimal surface contact
Promising cleaning efficacy
Modifiable activity
Small areas at a time
Several clearance steps required
Mechanical action required
Time consuming
Clearance with silicone solvents
Requires portable extraction and PPE
Nanorestore Gel® Peggy 5 gelEasy application and removal
Promising cleaning efficacy
Modifiable activity
Moderate surface contact
Uneven cleaning efficacy
Easy application and removal, no mechanical action required
Promising cleaning efficacy
Modifiable activity
Loss of contact with the surface
Uneven cleaning efficacy
Nanorestore Gel® Peggy 6 gelEasy application and removal
Modifiable activity
Better contact than Nanorestore Gel® Peggy 5
Moderate surface contact
Uneven cleaning efficacy
Easy application and removal, no mechanical action required
Promising cleaning efficacy
Modifiable activity
Loss of contact with the surface
Uneven cleaning efficacy
Boots spongeGentle mechanical action possible, control of amounts of liquidExtensive rinsing required prior to use
Release of large amount of liquids on the surface
Not testedNot tested
NYX Pro Beauty WedgesAs for Boots sponge. Firm consistency
No abrasion or resistance when applied to the surface
Release of some liquid on the surfaceNot testedNot tested
SENSAI sponge clothAs for Boots sponge. Very absorbent
Good control over the cleaning action
No abrasion or resistance when applied to the surface
Release of some liquid on the surfaceNot testedNot tested