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Table 1 Synthetic results of the physico-chemical analysis obtained on the investigated samples

From: Uncovering hidden jewels: an investigation of the pictorial layers of an 18th-century Taskin harpsichord

SampleDescription (location, typology, size)Micro detailsXRF detected elementsaFTIR identification
S1Keywell, gold foil, 2.60 × 2.25 × 0.25 μmPainting

Ground
Zn, Pb, Fe, Au, Ca, Cu, Ba, Sr, Mn, CrLead white, shellac, Prussian blue, ochre (kaolinite, quartz, iron oxides), gypsum, barium sulfate, metal soaps, oil/protein binder
Pb, Fe, Bi, Cu, Mn, Ti, Zn, Ca, SrLead white, lipids, proteinaceous materials (?)
S2Stands, green, 1.70 × 1.85 × 0.20 μmPainting

Ground
Pb, Fe, Ca, Cu, Co, Ti/Ba, Mn, Zn, Bi, Sr, Cr, Si, AlLead white, ochre (kaolinite, quartz, iron oxides), gypsum, oil/protein binder
Ca, Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ti, Co, Sr, Hg, Cr, Si, BiLead white, gypsum, chalk, umber (magnesium oxide, iron oxide, kaolinite, quartz), lipids, proteinaceous materials
S3Border, green, 3.30 × 2.56 × 0.27 μmPainting

Ground
Zn, Pb, Fe, Sr, Ba, Cu, CaLead white, Prussian blue, ochre (kaolinite, quartz, iron oxides), metal soaps, oil/protein binder
Pb, Fe, Bi, Cu, Zn, Ba, Ca, HgLead white, lipids, proteinaceous materials (?)
S4Tail, green, 1.33 × 1.53 × 0.25 μmPainting

Ground
Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ba, CaLead white, gypsum, Prussian blue, ochre (kaolinite, quartz, iron oxides), metal soaps, oil/protein binder
Ca, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, TiChalk, proteinaceous materials
S5Bentside, blue-green, 1.27 × 1.20 × 0.56 μmPainting

Ground
Zn, Pb, Fe, Ca, Cu, Ba, Mn, Sr, Bi, HgLead white, shellac, Prussian blue, emerald green (?), ochre (kaolinite, quartz, iron oxides), barium sulfate, metal soaps, oil/protein binder
Pb, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ba, Si, SChalk, lead white, lipids, proteinaceous materials
S6Keywell, gold foil, 2.87 × 1.40 × 0.56 μmPainting

Ground
Pb, Cu, Ca, Au, Fe, Zn, Mn, TiLead white, shellac, ochre (kaolinite, quartz, iron oxides), metal soaps, oil/protein binder
Ca, Pb, Cu, Fe, Ti, Sr, Mn, AuChalk, lead white, lipids, proteinaceous materials
S7Keywell, red, 1.02 × 0.66 × 0.36 μmPainting

Ground
Ca, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ti, Hg, Mn, Cr, SrLead white, red lead (?), shellac, ochre (quartz, iron oxides), barium sulfate, metal soaps, oil/protein binder
Ca, Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ti, Sr, Cr, HgChalk, lead white, lipids, proteinaceous materials
  1. aMajor elements with bold letters, minor elements with regular letters, trace elements with italic letters