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Table 2 Bulk chemical composition of Taya stone, differentiating between the brown- and grey-colored facies, and samples representative of some weathering patterns, determined by XRF

From: Taya Caves, a Buddhist marvel hidden in underground Japan: stone properties, deterioration, and environmental setting

  Rock Weathering
  Brown facies Grey facies Gypsum crusts Early sulfation Efflorescences Orange patinas
Na2O 1.74 1.74 0.20 1.74 1.60 1.02
MgO 2.37 3.58 0.53 3.26 2.90 1.85
Al2O3 16.67 16.19 1.73 15.39 14.82 9.25
SiO2 60.07 57.66 5.78 55.38 54.68 40.53
P2O5 0.07 0.10 0.02 0.08 0.33 1.19
SO3 0.03 1.15 38.79 2.32 1.07 0.15
K2O 1.58 1.48 0.19 1.55 1.66 0.95
CaO 3.73 3.94 32.66 4.36 4.28 2.95
TiO2 0.61 0.61 0.12 0.60 0.60 0.44
MnO 0.10 0.20 0.01 0.11 0.14 0.91
Fe2O3 6.37 6.76 0.97 6.69 6.86 26.33
LOI 6.47 6.43 18.92 8.34 10.75 14.24
Cl 159 219 186 156 1675 151
V 72 138 bdl bdl bdl 162
Cr 83 66 bdl bdl 57 bdl
Ni 37 bdl 56 41 bdl 116
Cu 61 73 bdl 88 101 90
Zn 103 108 bdl 117 132 197
Br bdl bdl 31 21 213 bdl
Rb 62 57 bdl 57 54 52
Sr 367 429 381 434 331 343
Y 22 15 bdl 18 20 179
Zr 117 137 bdl 155 144 118
Ba 277 180 bdl 159 207 bdl
  1. Major-element oxides and LOI are in wt%, trace elements in ppm
  2. bdl stands for “below detection limit”