Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of the vibrational spectroscopy signatures found for each analyzed color pigments, with respective attribution, figures and references

From: Integrated analytical approach to unveil the secrets of the recently discovered “Sphinx Room”: a new piece of Domus Aurea puzzle

Color Raman signature (cm−1) ATR-FTIR signature(cm−1) DRIFT signature (cm−1) Attribution Refs
Blue 426, 1080 519, 565, 598, 668, 754, 906, 1005, 1047, 1082, 1158 1006, 1060, 1250 Egyptian blue 9d, 11a, 13 h/h’, 13i/i’ [34, 44, 55, 56]
1006 598, 668, 1111, 1620, 3402, 3527 1140, 2120, 2230 Gypsum 9e, 11a, 13i/i’ [34, 41, 42, 57]
Green 437, 530 1065, 1205, 1550 Kaolinite, earths? 9d, 13 g/g’ [41, 45, 60, 61]
668, 1005, 1165   Egyptian blue? [55]
Yellow 250, 300, 390, 558 470, 539, 798, 910, 1010, 1032, 1083, 1112, 3622, 3648, 3665, 3690 3690, 4524 Yellow ochre 9b, 12b, 13f/f’ [39, 41, 60, 61]
Red 986 606, 630–640, 984, 1070, 1163   Baryte 11c, 13d/d’, 13e/e’ [49]
  680 1415, 1740, 2400 Cerussite 13e/e’ [41, 63]
  430, 464, 531, 1009, 1030, 1130, 1182 1065, 1109 Red ochre 10b, 13d/d’, 13e/e’ [39, 41, 44, 60, 61]
228, 292, 405, 613   1065, 4525 8f, 10c, 12a
Brown 674 466, 565   Magnetite 12c [39, 52, 62]
   1030, 1109, 1550 Red ochre 10a, 13c/c’ [41, 44]
White 158, 282, 714, 1086 712, 844, 871, 1085, 1397, 2870 880, 1400, 1795, 2515 + 2590, 4270 Calcite 8e, 9c, 11b, 13b/b’ [34, 40,41,42, 53, 54]
1006    Gypsum 11b [34]
1050    Cerussite 11b [34]
Black 1375, 1587    Carbon black 11d [48]
  1. Numbers in bold: laboratory Raman analysis, in italics: in situ Raman analysis. Calcite signature was considered only for white