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Table 1 The materials as identified on the painted beehive panel (PK2) at the different sampling locations as marked in Fig. 1a, along with the methods used

From: Material characterisation of a painted beehive panel by advanced spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques in combination with hyperspectral imaging

Material Chemical formula Raman FTIR-reflection Raman microscopy FTIR-transmission GC–MS
Lead white (hydrocerussite) 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2    PK2-1, PK2-2b, PK2-3, PK2-4   
Anatase TiO2    PK2-2b   
barium sulfate BaSO4 R4, R5, R7 R18, R19 A1, A3, A4, A5, A7 PK2-1, PK2-2, PK2-2b, PK2-3, PK2-4 PK2-1, PK2-2, PK2-3  
Calcium carbonate CaCO3 R6   PK2-1   
Iron oxide (likely haematite type) Fe2O3 R2, R3, R16, R17   PK2-1, PK2-2b   
Iron hydroxide (likely goethite type) FeOOH    PK2-2b   
Cinnabar/vermilion HgS R1, R3, R8   PK2-1, PK2-4   
Lead oxide (minium) Pb3O4    PK2-4   
Ultramarine Na8[Al6Si6O24]Sn R9, R10, R11, R12, R14   PK2-1 PK2-1  
Prussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3·xH2O R5, R18 A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7 PK2-1, PK2-2, PK2-2b, PK2-3, PK2-4 PK2-1, PK2-2, PK2-3  
Carbon-based black C R3, R13, R15, R16, R17     
Glycerolipids    A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6 (at the back), A7   PK2-1, PK2-2, PK2-3 PK2-1, PK2-2
Plant terpenoid resin    A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7   PK2-1, PK2-3  
Beeswax    A1, A2, A5, A6, A7, A3, A4#   PK2-2, PK2-3 PK2-1, PK2-2
Oxalate    A1, A2, A3, A4   PK2-1, PK2-2, PK2-3  
Carboxylate      PK2-1, PK2-3  
Carnauba wax      PK2-2  
  1. #Present in traces