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Table 2 Normalized major element contents of the glass standards (ED-XRF) (wt%)

From: The chemical composition and manufacturing technology of glass beads excavated from the Hetian Bizili site, Xinjiang

  Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P2O5 K2O CaO Fe2O3 PbO
Corning B
 Average 15.8 1.1 4.6 62.8 0.8 1.0 8.7 0.4 0.6
 RSD % 14.0 63.0 10.0 1.0 8.0 4.0 2.0 7.0 4.0
 Reference composition wt% 17.00 1.03 4.36 61.60 0.82 1.00 8.56 0.34 0.61
 Absolute error wt% − 1.20 0.07 0.24 1.20 − 0.02 0.00 0.14 0.06 − 0.01
 Relative error % 7.06 6.80 5.50 1.95 2.44 0.00 1.64 17.65 1.64
Corning C
 Average 1.6 2.5 0.7 35.7 0.1 2.6 4.8 0.3 35.3
 RSD % 58.0 60.0 50.0 4.0 19.0 15.0 10.0 14.0 6.0
 Reference composition wt% 1.07 2.76 0.87 34.90 0.14 2.84 5.07 0.34 36.70
 Absolute error wt% 0.49 − 0.29 − 0.13 0.81 0.01 − 0.21 − 0.28 − 0.03 − 1.39
 Relative error % 45.36 10.69 14.90 2.33 4.29 7.51 5.61 7.55 3.79
Corning D
 Average 1.2 4.8 5.0 54.6 5.9 12.6 13.6 0.4 0.4
 RSD % 91.8 11.2 2.8 1.8 3.5 1.6 1.1 1.5 1.3
 Reference composition wt% 1.20 3.94 5.31 55.24 3.93 11.30 14.80 0.52 0.48
 Absolute error wt% 0.0 0.9 − 0.3 − 0.6 2.0 1.3 − 1.2 − 0.1 − 0.1
 Relative error % 0.00 21.83 5.84 1.16 50.13 11.50 8.11 23.08 16.67