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Table 4 Raman spectroscopy characteristics of pigments in different colors

From: Guangzhou Tongcao painting in late China Qing Dynasty (1840–1912 AD): technology revealed by analytical approaches

Color Raman shift (cm−1) Pigment identified Detection points
Black 1324, 1596 Carbon black Number 4
Yellow 1431, 1595, 1627 Gamboge Number 7, 8, 9 and 16
Blue 259, 548, 808, 1096, 1355, 1645 Ultramarine blue Number 1, 2, 13 &15
White 153, 280, 711, 1048, 1085 Calcite and lead white Number 6 and 10
Green (Bright) 106, 119, 152, 172, 216, 240, 291, 323, 370, 431, 492, 538, 681, 755, 842, 950, 1438, 1563 Emerald green Number 3
Green (Dark) 176, 217, 278, 369, 536, 952, 1336, 1595, 2093, 2156 The mixture of prussian blue, emerald green and carbon black Number 11
Red 121, 151, 223, 314, 389, 548 Red lead Number 5, 12 and 14