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Table 3 The results of elemental (XRF, EDX) and spectral analysis (micro-FTIR, micro-RS) of the studied samples

From: A study of “The Portrait of F.P. Makerovsky in a Masquerade Costume” by Dmitry Levitsky from the collection of the State Tretyakov Gallery

Sample no.Layermicro-RSmicro-FTIREDXaXRFa
1GreenLead white ((PbCO3)2·Pb(OH)2), Prussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, vermillion HgSKaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8), malachite (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), Prussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3Pb, Si, Ca, Fe, Al, K, TiPb, Hg, Fe
BrownVermillion HgS, lead white ((PbCO3)2·Pb(OH)2)Lead white ((PbCO3)2·Pb(OH)2), kaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8)Pb, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti
Light groundLead white ((PbCO3)2·Pb(OH)2), vermillion HgS, yellow ochre FeO(OH)·nH2O, Prussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3Lead white ((PbCO3)2·Pb(OH)2)Pb, Ca, Al, Fe, TiPb, Fe
Dark groundLead white ((PbCO3)2·Pb(OH)2), kaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8), vermillion HgS, yellow ochre FeO(OH)·nH2O, Prussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3Kaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8)Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Pb, K, Ti, Na, Cl, AsFe, Pb, Ca, Mn
2GreenPrussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, vermillion HgSKaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8), Prussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, malachite (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2)Si, Al, Pb, Fe, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, SbPb, Fe
Dark greyPrussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3Pb, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, As
Light greyPrussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, vermillion HgSMalachite (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2)
Light inter-layer in the groundKaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8), Prussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3Kaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8)Si, Al, Fe, K, Pb, Na, Mg, Ti, Ca, AsPb, Fe, Ti, Ca
GroundKaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8)Pb, Fe, Ti
3GreenLead white ((PbCO3)2·Pb(OH)2), vermillion HgS
Prussian blue Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3
Kaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8), malachite (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2)Pb, Si, Fe, Al, Ca, Mn, Sn, PPb, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ca
BrownCaCO3, yellow ochre FeO(OH)·nH2OYellow ochre FeO(OH)·nH2OFe, Si, Ca, Al, Mn, Pb, P, Mg, K
Light inter-layer in the groundKaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8), yellow ochre FeO(OH)·nH2OKaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8)Si, Al, Fe, K, Pb, Ca, TiPb, Fe, Ti, K, Ca
GroundSi, Al, Fe, K, Pb, Ca, Ti, As
4BrownHematite (Fe2O3)Kaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8), yellow ochre FeO(OH)·nH2OFe, Si, Ca, Al, P, Pb, As, Na, Cl, K, MgPb, Fe, Ti, K, Ca
GroundKaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8)Kaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8)Si, Al, Fe, K, Pb, Na, Ca, Ti, As, P, Mg, S, ClPb, Fe, Ti
5Varnish layerNatural resinNatural resin
6Varnish layerNatural resinNatural resin
  1. aThe chemical elements determined by the XRF and EDX methods are listed in the table in order of their content decreasing