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Table 3 Categorisation and physical properties of tested adsorbent media

From: Adsorbent media for the sustainable removal of organic air pollutants from museum display cases

Adsorbent categoryAdsorbent mediaSupplier/distributorCompositionaPhysical characteristicsaManufacturer remarks/application recommendations
Pure charcoalPC1APure activated carbon, non-impregnated coconut shells, extra-fine poresDimensions: chips: 2.4–4.8 mm
Apparent density: 450 ± 25 g/l
Internal surface area: ~ 1100 m2/g
Iodine number: > 1050 mg/g
Moisture (as packed): max 10 w/w%
Ash content: max 5%
Adsorption of non-polar organic compounds (e.g. biocides), small amounts of acidic gases and substances; good adsorption of small pollutant concentrations due to narrow pores
PC2BVirgin grade, activated charcoal with high inner surface, non-impregnatedRelative moisture content: max 2%
Surface area: 1100–1200 m2/g
Moisture content: max 5%
Ash content: max 2.5–3%
Designed to remove high molecular weight pollutants by means of adsorption; gases shall adhere to the surface of the media pellet during the adsorptive process
PC3CGranular activated carbon; coconut shell steam-activated carbon, non-impregnatedGranular size: > 3.35 mm (max 8%), < 1.7 mm (max 5%) 
Impregnated charcoalIC1AGranulated peat-carbon, impregnated with NaOH, base material: mineral coalDimensions: extruded cylinders: diameter ~ 4 mm
Apparent density: 500 ± 5 g/l
Iodine number: 900 mg/g
Moisture (as packed): max 10 w/w%
Adsorption of acidic gases due to alkaline impregnation; chemical application, pollutants are firmly bonded on the charcoal; gases will not be liberated again in long-term application; avoid direct contact with sensitive surfaces due to alkaline impregnation
IC2AGranulated peat-carbon, impregnated with KOHDimensions: extruded cylinders: diameter ~ 3 mm, 5 mm length
Apparent density: 500 g/l
Moisture (as packed): max 18 w/w%
Avoid direct contact with sensitive surfaces due to alkaline impregnation
IC3BSpherical, porous pellets; formed from a combination of activated alumina and other binders, impregnated with potassium permanganate (KMnO4); impregnant is uniformly distributed throughout the pellet volumeMoisture content: max. 35%
Density: 800 kg/m3
Nominal diameter: 3.175 mm (1.8’’)
Content KMnO4: min 4%
Filter capacity: H2S: min 8% (mass fraction)
SO2: min 4% (mass fraction)
NOx: min 2.8% (mass fraction)
Primary adsorption of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and sulphur dioxide (SO2); optimum adsorption, absorption and oxidation of a wide variety of gaseous contaminants; desorption not possible;
Recommended airflow: 42.5–169.920 m3/h
Recommended air velocity: 18–150 m/min
IC4BSpherical, porous pellets, impregnated; impregnant is uniformly distributed throughout the pellet volume; impregnant not specified Manufactured specifically for the control of ammonia and amines
IC5BEqual mix (by volume) of impregnated (IC3) and pure charcoal (PC2, 50/50); spherical, porous pellets, impregnated with KMnO4Moisture content: max. 35%
Density: 800 kg/m3
Nominal diameter: 3.175 mm (1.8’’)
Content KMnO4: min 4%
Breaking strength: 35–70%
Abrasion: max 4.5%
Filter efficiency: 99.5%
Optimum adsorption, absorption and oxidation of a wide range of contaminants; for the control of hydrocarbons with a high surface area available for adsorption
Recommended airflow: 42.5–169.920 m3/h
Recommended air velocity: 18–150 m/min
Temperature range: − 20–51 °C
Relative humidity: 10–95%
IC6BGenerally spherical, porous pellets, formed from a combination of powdered activated alumina and other binders, impregnated with potassium permanganate (KMnO4); the impregnant is uniformly distributed throughout the pellet volumeMoisture content: max. 35%
Density: 800 ± 5 kg/m3
Nominal diameter: 3.175 mm (1.8’’)
Content KMnO4: min 8%
Breaking strength: 35–70%
Abrasion: max 4.5%
Filter efficiency: 99.5%
Removes sulphur oxides and other odorous pollutants from makeup air, emissions from office furnishings and human bioeffluents; removes H2S, NOx, SO2, HCHO, and low-molecular aldehydes/organic acids; optimum adsorption, absorption and oxidation of a wide variety of gaseous contaminants
IC7BGenerally spherical, porous pellets, formed from a combination of powdered activated alumina and other binders, impregnated with sodium permanganate (NaMnO4); the impregnant is uniformly distributed throughout the pellet volumeMoisture content: max. 35%
Density: 800 kg/m3
Nominal diameter: 3.175 mm (1.8’’)
Content KMnO4: min 12%
Breaking strength: 35–70%
Abrasion: max 4.5%
Filter efficiency: 99.5%
Filter capacity: H2S: min 14% (mass fraction)
SO2: min 7% (mass fraction)
NOx: min 4.9% (mass fraction)
HCHO: min 4% (mass fraction)
Filtration of H2S, NOx, SO2, HCHO, high molecular aldehydes/organic acids; higher working capacity for broad-spectrum oxidation of contaminants; contains more permanganate as active ingredient for increased removal capacity; neutralization of target substances by chemisorption
Recommended airflow: 42.5–169.920 m3/h
Recommended air velocity: 18–150 m/min
Temperature range: − 20–51 °C
Relative humidity: 10–95%
IC8CGranular impregnated activated carbon; coconut shell, specially impregnated for chemisorption of formaldehydeSurface area: 1150 m2/g
Apparent density: 620 kg/m2
Moisture content: max 15%
 
Charcoal clothCC1CActivated carbon adsorptive filter media; polyester non-woven on both sidesBasis weight: 310 g/m2
Thickness AFM: 0.9 mm
Thickness AFM: 2000 l/m2s
Content of activated carbon: 200 g/m2
 
CC2CSynthetic composite carbon filter mediaBasis weight: 119 g/m2
Stiffness, MD: 1000 mgs
Patented gradient density, durable synthetic construction, pleatable, high efficiency, low resistance
CC3CNon-woven carbon filter mediaNominal thickness: 6 mm
Product weight: 290 gsm
Carbon weight: 95 gsm
Carbon content: 33%
 
CC4CThree-layer composite beaded carbon media, 2*100% PES with activated carbon layerWeight: 295 (g/m2) ± 15%
Width: 152 ± 4 cm
Thickness: 0.75 ± 0.15 mm
Adsorption surface: 165.000 m2/m2
Iodine adsorption:
175,000 mg/m2
 
CC5CActivated carbon felt; fibre structure, low pressure drop, low ash contentWeight: 120 g/m2
Butane uptake: 25%
Length × width: 50 × 1.15
BET surface area: > 1200 m2/g
Thickness: 2–3 mm
 
CC6CActivated carbon-coated foam; reticulated polyurethane foam which is coated with activated granular carbonWeight: 4300 g/m2
Thickness: 30 mm
Activated-carbon content: 2600 g/m2
 
CC7COpen-cell polyurethane foam which is coated with activated granular carbonWeight: ≥ 2000 g/m2
Thickness: 11 ± 0.5 mm
Activated-carbon content: ≥ 1300 g/m2
 
CC8CActivated carbon cloth Highly microporous, knitted structure, excellent kinetics, physically robust; maximum utilisation of available surface area; very good drape and good stretch; very fast adsorption of target contaminants; virtually zero shedding of carbon particulates
CC9AWoven, bonded on one side to a white non-wovenActivated carbon content: 120 g/m2
Internal surface area: 900–1100 m2/g
Width: 108 cm
Thickness: 0.5 mm
Can oxidize metal at direct contact; possible application for decontamination purposes; interleaf a neutral fabric between the carbon cloth and the object
CC10AWoven, bonded on one side to a white non-woven; alkaline impregnatedInternal surface area: 1000–1200 m2/g
Width: 100 cm
Thickness: 0.5 mm
Alkaline impregnation for tenfold higher adsorption capacity for H2S, NOx and other acid gases; avoid contact with delicate surfaces
ZeolitesZ1DSynthetic ZSM (zeolite socony mobil) zeolite; pentasile structure; adsorption of molecules with a diameter of max. 5.6 Å White, microporous, organophilic, inorganic zeolite powder, large adsorption capacity for odours and flavours and other organic compounds; high adsorption capacity is maintained even after incorporating into a polymer matrix; usually used for VOC adsorption of molecules to about 5.6 Å
Z2DSynthetic US-Y zeolite (ultra-stable zeolite Y) Generally used for VOC adsorption of molecules to about 7.6 Å
Z3DHydrophobic adsorption media; synthetic HPZ zeolite (high-performance zeolite); high silica/alumina-ratio zeolite product; cubic crystal structure with straight 10-membered ring channels of 5.3*5.6 Å; the channels are connected by sinusoidal channels of 5.1*5.5 Å Removal of VOCs according to molecular size and polarity; catalytic reaction
Z4DSynthetic zeolite, pentasile structure without Al (pure silica); straight channels with a diameter of 5.1*5.6 Å, connected by 5.4*5.6 Å channels  
Z5DSynthetic zeolite, tetragonal structure with 12-membered ring channels (7.6*6.4 Å), connected by 10-membered channels of 5.5*5.6 Å Pores are composed of 12 tetrahedron; large pore zeolite
Z6DSynthetic zeolite, sodium form of the type X crystal, large pore opening; adsorption of molecules with a kinetic diameter of < 9 Å (0.9 nm) and exclusion of those larger Highest theoretical capacity of the common adsorbents, very good mass-transfer rates; removal of CO2 and moisture from air, mercaptans, H2S
Z7DNatural zeolite, micro porous structure, silica/alumina tetrahedrons  
Molecular sievesMS1DMolecular sieve, powder, pore opening 3 Å  
MS2DMolecular sieve, powder, pore opening 4 Å  
MS3DMolecular sieve, powder, pore opening 5 Å  
Silica gelsSG1ASilica gel, 97% SiO2, 3% Al2O3, free of chlorides  
SG2ASilica gel, 90% SiO2, lithium chloride (LiCl) No off-gassing; adsorption of small amount of VOCs; degradation by acid contaminants with time (not fixed, can be released again)
MiscellaneousCFAFoam; copper particles embedded on polymeric matrix Reduce contaminants attacking metals, such as SO2, H2S and others
PSA100% cotton fabric embedded with fine silver particles (pure, colloidal silver) Absorbs tarnish producing gases
AC1ACardboard embedded with synthetic zeolites; 100% cotton fibres, free of pulp wood and lignin, alkaline binder, alkaline lamination (water-based, solvent-free); colour: white Acid-free, durable, absorbs and neutralizes pollutants
AC2ASame as AC1; colour: black 
  1. aAccording to the manufacturer/supplier