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Table 5 Summary of ground characteristic of Paris phase paintings

From: Technical examination of Liu Kang’s Paris and Shanghai painting supports (1929–1937)

Title and inventory numbera Date Tacking margins Commercial preparation Partial ground coverage of the tacking margins Penetration of oil through to the back SEM–EDS detected elementsb FTIR identification Result Type of ground
St Gingolph, Lac Leman, Switzerland 1929 Yes Yes Yes No Pb, C, O, (Zn, Ca, Na, Al, Mg, Ba) Lead white, traces of lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, chalk, oil, proteins Lead white, traces of lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, chalk, oil, proteins 1
My room in Paris 1929 Yes Yes No No     
Landscape 1930 Yes Yes No No O, C, Pb, Ca, Zn, Na, (Si, Al)   Lead white, chalk, zinc white 1
French countryside 1930 Yes Yes Yes   Pb, C, O, (Ca, Mg)   Lead white, traces of chalk 1
Cottage with blue shutters, France 1930 Yes No No      
Portrait of a man with his hat, Belgium 1930 Yes Yes Yes No Pb, O, C, Ca, (Mg, Cr, Zn, Si, Al) Lead white, chalk, oil Lead white, chalk, traces of zinc white, oil 1
Autumn landscape 1930 Yes Yes No No     
Man in blue coat, Paris 1930 Yes Yes No No C, O, Ca, Pb, Zn, Na, (As, Cr, Si, Al, Ba) Chalk, lead white, oil, proteins, zinc soap Chalk, lead white, zinc white, zinc soap, oil, proteins, traces of As, Cr considered as contamination 4
Village street, France 1930 Yes Yes No Yes     
Landscape in Switzerland,
Acc. no. P-1229
1930 Yes Yes Yes No Pb, C, O, (Cl, Zn, Al, Ba, Cr, Na, Si) Lead white, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil lead soap Lead white, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, lead soap 1
Street scene in France,
Acc. no. 2003–03366
1930 Yes Yes Yes   Pb, O, C, (Mg, Ca, Si) Lead white, oil Lead white, traces of chalk, oil 1
Countryside in France,
Acc. no. 2003–03365
1930 Yes Yes No No C, Pb, O, Ba, Ti, Zn, S, Na, (Fe, Si, Al) Lead white, barium white, zinc white, oil, proteins Lead white, barium white, zinc white, titanium white, oil, proteins 2
Farmers house,
Acc. no. GI-0254-(PC)
1930 No     Pb, C, O, Ba, Ti, Zn, S, Na, (Ca, Si, Al) Lead white, barium white, zinc white, traces of chalk, oil, zinc soap Lead white, barium white, zinc white, titanium white, traces of chalk, oil, zinc soap 2
Autumn colours,
Acc. no. GI-0255 (PC)
1930 No     Pb, Ba, O, C, S, (Sr, Si, Ca, Al, Na, Fe) Lead white, barium white, oil, lead soap Lead white, barium white, traces of chalk, oil, lead soap 3
Zuo La Lu,
Acc. no. 1993–00998
1930 Yes Yes No   O, C, Ca, Pb, Zn, Na, (Si, Al, Mg) Chalk, lead white, oil, unconfirmed detection of proteins due to the overlapping peak of zinc soap Chalk, lead white, zinc white, oil, unconfirmed detection of proteins due to the overlapping peak of zinc soap 4
Still life with books, Paris 1931 No     C, O, Ba, Ca, Zn, S, Pb, (Ti, Si, Al, Mg)   Lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, chalk, lead white, traces of titanium white 5
Portrait of a man with his pipe, Paris 1931 No        
Self-portrait 1931 No        
Self-portrait in Paris 1931 Yes Yes No Yes     
Boats, Etretat 1931 Yes Yes No No     
French lady,
Acc. no. 1993–00996
1931 No     Pb, C, O, (Ca, Cl, Zn, Na, Si, Al) Lead white, oil, lead soap Lead white, traces of chalk and zinc white, oil, lead soap 1
Boat near the cliff,
Acc. no. 2003–03249
1931 Yes Yes No   Pb, C, O, Zn, (Na, Al) Lead white, oil Lead white, zinc white, oil 1
Village scene,
Acc. no. 2003–03320
1931 Yes Yes No   Pb, C, O, (Ca, S, Zn, Al, Na) Lead white, oil Lead white, traces of chalk and zinc white, oil 1
Slope,
Acc. no. 2003–03319
1931 Yes No No      
Winter,
Acc. no. GI-0256
1931 No     Pb, O, C, (Ca, Mg, Si, Na) Lead white, oil Lead white, traces of chalk, oil 1
My landlady, Madame Normand 1932 Yes Yes No Yes O, C, Ca, Ba, Zn, S, (Na, Pb, Ti) Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, proteins, zinc soap Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of lead and titanium whites, oil, proteins, zinc soap 5
Street 1932 Yes Yes No No     
Seafood,
Acc. no. 2003–03250
1932 Yes Yes No   Pb, C, Ba, O, S, (Sr, Si, Ca, Fe) Lead white, barium white, oil Lead white, barium white, traces of chalk, oil 3
Breakfast,
Acc. no. GI-0257 (PC)
1932 No     Pb, C, O, Ba, S, Zn, Ti, (Si, Na, Cr, Sr, Cl, Al) Lead white, barium white, zinc white, oil, unconfirmed detection of proteins due to the overlapping peak of zinc soap Lead white, barium white, zinc white, titanium white, oil, unconfirmed detection of proteins due to the overlapping peak of zinc soap 2
  1. aAccession numbers indicate paintings from the NGS collection. Titles without the accession numbers are from Liu family collection
  2. bMajor elements are given in italics, minor elements in plain type and trace elements in brackets