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Table 6 Summary of ground characteristic of Shanghai phase paintings

From: Technical examination of Liu Kang’s Paris and Shanghai painting supports (1929–1937)

Title and inventory numbera Date Tacking margins Commercial preparation Partial ground coverage of the tacking margins Penetration of oil through to the back SEM–EDS detected elementsb FTIR identification Result Type of ground
Red and white walls 1933 Yes Yes No No O, C, Ca, Ba, Zn, S, Pb, Na, (Ti, Si, Al)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, lead white, traces of titanium white 1
Courtyard with tree 1933 Yes Yes No No O, C, Ca, Ba, Zn, S, (Na, Pb, Ti)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of lead white and titanium white 1
Countryside landscape 1933 Yes Yes No Yes O, Ca, C, Ba, Zn, Pb, S, (Na, Si, Cr, Ti)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, lead white, traces of titanium white 1
Autumn Countryside 1933 Yes Yes No No O, Ca, C, Ba, Zn, Pb, S, (Na, Al, Si, Mg)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, lead white 1
Farmhouse and field 1933 Yes Yes No Yes O, C, Ca, Ba, Zn, S, (Na, Cr, Al)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white 1
Pagoda near Shanghai 1933 Yes Yes No Yes O, C, Ca, Zn, Ba, S, (Na, Ti)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white 1
Courtyard, Shanghai 1933 Yes Yes No No O, C, Ca, Zn, Ba, S, (Na, Ti)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white 1
Still life with green stool 1933 Yes Yes Yes No Pb, O, C, (Ca, Na, Mg) lead white, oil Lead white, traces of chalk, oil 1 (Paris)
Working at the fields,
Acc. no. 2003–03258
1933 No     O, Ca, C, Zn, Ba, S, (Si, Na, Sr, Ti) chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, inconclusive detection of proteins due to weak or absent absorption peaks at 1636 cm−1 and overlapping absorption band of zinc soap Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white, oil, inconclusive detection of proteins due to weak or absent absorption peaks at 1636 cm−1 and overlapping absorption band of zinc soap 1
Countryside in China,
Acc. No. 2003–03299
1933 Yes Yes No   O, C, Ca, Zn, Ba, S, Na, (Ti, Si) Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, proteins Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white, oil, proteins 1
Countryside near Shanghai 1934 Yes Yes No No C, O, Ca, Zn, Ba, S, (Na, Ti, Si)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white 1
Village lane 1934 Yes Yes No No O, Ca, C, Ba, Zn, S, (Na, Ti, Pb)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of lead white and titanium white 1
Farmhouses 1934 No    No C, O, Ca, Zn, Ba, S, Na   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white 1
Rustic landscape 1934 Yes Yes No No O, C, Ca, Ba, Zn, S, (Na, Pb, Fe, Si, Ti, Al, Mg) Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, proteins Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of lead and titanium whites, oil, proteins 1
Backyard,
Acc. no. 2003–03252
1934 Yes Yes No No C, Ba, O, S, Zn, Pb, Na, Ti, (Si, Ca, Al, Cr, Cl, Sr) Lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, lead white, chalk, oil, proteins Lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, lead white, titanium white, traces of chalk, oil, proteins 5 (Paris)
Pagoda 1935 Yes Yes No No O, C, Ca, Zn, Ba, S, (Na, Si, Sr)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white 1
Seascape near Shanghai 1935 Yes Yes No No C, O, Ca, Zn, Ba, S, Na, (Ti, Sr, Si) Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, proteins Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white, oil, proteins 1
House on the hill 1936 Yes Yes No No O, C, Ca, Zn, Ba, (S, Na, Cr, Si)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white 1
Street market I 1936 Yes Yes No No O, Ca, C, Ba, Zn, S, (Na, Ti, Si)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white 1
Street market II 1936 Yes Yes No No O, C, Ca, Ba, Zn, S, Pb, (Na, Ti)   Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white 1
Seaside near Shanghai 1936 Yes Yes No No O, C, Ca, Ba, Zn, S, (Na, Ti, Si) Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, proteins Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white, oil, proteins 1
Seascape 1936 No    No Zn, C, O, Na, (Ba, S, Pb) Lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, chalk, oil, zinc soap Lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of lead white, chalk, oil, zinc soap 2
Nude,
Acc. no. 2003–03367
1936 Yes Yes   No C, O, Ca, Zn, Ba, Na, S, (Cr, Ti, Si, Al, Sr) Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, inconclusive detection of proteins due to weak or absent absorption peaks at 1636 cm−1 and overlapping absorption band of zinc soap Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white, oil, inconclusive detection of proteins due to weak or absent absorption peaks at 1636 cm−1 and overlapping absorption band of zinc soap 1
Waterfall,
Acc. no. 2003–03247
1936 Yes Yes No   O, C, Ca, Zn, Ba, S, (Na, Si, Ti, Sr) Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, inconclusive detection of proteins due to weak or absent absorption peaks at 1636 cm−1 and overlapping absorption band of zinc soap Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white, oil, inconclusive detection of proteins due to weak or absent absorption peaks at 1636 cm−1 and overlapping absorption band of zinc soap 1
Mount Huangshan
Acc. No. 2003–03369
1936 No     O, C, Ca, Zn, Ba, S, (Na, Si, Ti) Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, inconclusive detection of proteins due to weak or absent absorption peaks at 1636 cm−1 and overlapping absorption band of zinc soap Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of titanium white, oil, inconclusive detection of proteins due to weak or absent absorption peaks at 1636 cm−1 and overlapping absorption band of zinc soap 1
Seaside,
Acc. No. 2003–03318
1936 Yes Yes    O, Ca, C, Ba, Zn, S, (Na, Si, Pb, Ti) Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, oil, proteins Chalk, lithopone and/or barium white and zinc white, traces of lead and titanium whites, oil, proteins 1
  1. aAccession numbers indicate paintings from the NGS collection. Titles without the accession numbers are from Liu family collection
  2. bMajor elements are given in bold, minor elements in plain type and trace elements in brackets