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Table 1 Diagnostic methods used in the case study

From: Correlation between the cracking pattern of historical structure and soil properties: the case of the church in Kożuchów

Method Method characteristics Advantages/disadvantages
Visual assessment Assessment of external surfaces and cracking patterns + Low cost
+ Does not require specialized equipment
− Results are qualitative
Geotechnical investigations Geological cores + Assessment of differentiated subsidence rates of building foundations
− High costs, especially with respect to deep bore holes
Geometrical survey including H-BIM Interactive model built by the use of the historical architectural and construction documentation, photogrammetric techniques, laser scanning, and other data obtained from the physical analysis of the building + The possibility to understand, analyze, document, advertise and virtually reconstruct the whole structure
+ Enables also energy simulations, time, and cost calculations, and other functions that may improve the way to manage the maintenance and restoration processes
− Complex and time consuming method