Skip to main content

Table 1 Sources of data for this paper, and the number of analysed coins per dynasty

From: Chemical studies of Chinese coinage II: from Qin to Yuan (221 BCE–1368 CE)

Dynasty Date Koga (1919) Dai and Zhou (1992) Niu (1986) Zhou and Fan (1992) Zhou (2004) Wang et al. (2005) Zhao et al. (2009) Pereira (2013) Chi et al. (2016) Total
Qin 221–206 BCE   7    13 4     24
Western Han 206 BCE–9 CE 4 14 1   82 18   10 11 140
Xin (Wang Mang) 9–23 CE   6 1   85 12   5   109
Eastern Han 23–220      46 4   1   51
Three Kingdoms/N and S Dynasties 220–589      24 16     40
Sui 589–618      8      8
Tang 618–907 6 10 2 5 147 84   11   265
Five Dynasties/Ten Kingdoms 907–960      12 40     52
Liao 907–1125    4   34      38
Northern Song 960–1127 7 20 31   496 183 21 3   761
Xi Xia 1032–1227    5   10      15
Jin 1125–1234    1   17 2     20
Southern Song 1127–1279 3 20    82 43 21 93   262
Yuan 1271–1368 2     7 4   5   18
Total   22 77 45 5 1063 410 42 128 11 1803
Method of analysis   Wet chem Not stated SEM–EDS Wet chem and AAS Wet chem and AAS XRF and AAS XRF XRF SEM–EDS