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Table 1 Physical and mechanical parameters of different cave temple cliff

From: The history of rescuing reinforcement and the preliminary study of preventive protection system for the cliff of Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, China

Sites Number of the engineering rock group Density (g/cm3) Compressive strength (MPa) Tensile strength (MPa) Cohesion (MPa) Internal friction angle (°) Elastic modulus (MPa) Poisson’s ratio
Mogao Grottoes Q3 2.30 0.20 0.10 40 100 0.30
Q2-A 2.40 9.50 0.36 0.20 55 200 0.28
Q2-B 2.15 12.6 0.54 0.08 38 87 0.31
Q2-C 2.45 8.60 0.47 0.25 57 300 0.27
Q2-D 2.55 15.8 0.67 0.30 60 500 0.26
Retaining wall 2.50 1.50 0.45 70 1000 0.27
Maijishan Grottoes [43,44,45]   2.33 10.95 0.94
Beishiku Temple [46]   2.02 22.79
Yungang Grottoes [47, 48]   2.16 30.0 5.39 1 30.45 3494 0.20