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Table 2 Materials determined by XRF (including XRF scanning), rFTIR, Raman, and FORS in the Vienna Moamin. Minor elements determined by XRF are presented in brackets

From: Materials and techniques used for the “Vienna Moamin”: multianalytical investigation of a book about hunting with falcons from the thirteenth century

Material Conclusion XRF rFTIR Raman FORS
Carrier material for writing and painting  
Whitish folios Parchment with CaCO3 content S, Cl, K, Ca, (Fe) Parchment, calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate Uncharacteristic
Writing inks  
Brown, main text Iron gall ink Fe, (Cu, Pb) Uncharacteristic partially calcium oxalate Iron gall ink Increasing reflectance in NIR
Brown, marginal notes Iron gall ink S, K, Fe, (Cu) Uncharacteristic Iron gall ink Not analyzed
Red ink, main text Vermilion S, Hg Uncharacteristic Vermilion Vermilion
Colorants  
White Lead white Pb Lead white Not analyzed Uncharacteristic
Blue Azurite Fe, Cu Azurite Not analyzed Azurite
Light blue Azurite, lead white Fe, Cu, Pb Azurite, lead white Not analyzed Azurite
Green Orpiment, indigo, gypsum Si, S, K, (Fe), As Gypsum Orpiment & indigo Indigo
Gold-beige Mosaic gold S, Sn Uncharacteristic partially gypsum Not analyzed Not analyzed
Yellow Ochre, kaolin, lead white Si, (Ti), Fe, Cu, Pb Kaolin, lead white Not analyzed Not analyzed
Orange Minium Pb Parchment bands attenuated Minium Not analyzed
Red Vermilion Hg, S Uncharacteristic Vermilion Vermilion
Red Brazilwood lake Ca Calcium carbonate Not analyzed Brazilwood lake
Pink Brazilwood lake, lead white Ca, Pb Calcium carbonate, lead white Not analyzed Brazilwood lake
Brown Iron oxide Ca, Fe Uncharacteristic Iron oxide Not analyzed
Brown Iron oxide with silicate Si, S, Ti, Fe Not analyzed Not analyzed Not analyzed
Black Carbon black Only elements from parchment Uncharacteristic Carbon black Carbon black