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Table 1 Ecological data from UK and Scotland relating to tree taxa from case studies

From: Modelling medieval masonry construction: taxa-specific and habitat-contingent Bayesian techniques for the interpretation of radiocarbon data from Mortar-Entrapped Relict Limekiln Fuels

Maximum lifespan Taxa Habit Life cycle Post-mortem resilience Working IAτ References
50 Years Corylus avellana Shrub ‘self-coppicing’ cycles of ≤ 30–50 year old stems in UK. ≤ 12–15 year old stems on some thin Scottish Atlantic soils Not included in BSI standards 20 years [30, 33]
100 Years Betula pubescens Shrub/Small Tree Matures 50–60 with lifespan ≤ 100 years in UK. ‘Shortest- lived common tree [in UK] after Aspen.’ 5—Not Durable. Dies rapidly and rots quickly. Life expectancy in ground contact ‘less than 5 years’ 50 years [30,31,32, 54, 57,58,59]
200 Years Betula pendula Tree  ≤ 100 years in UK generally
 ≤ 180 years in Central Scotland
5—Not Durable. As per Betula pubescens 100 years [30, 31, 54, 58, 60]
600 Years Pinus sylvestris Tree Generally aged ≤ 300 years. Lifespan ≤ 550 years in NW Scotland 3–4 moderate-slightly durable 300 years [54, 61, 62]
Quercus
robur and petraea
Tree General ages ≤ 300 years in UK woodlands. Scottish medieval timber ≤ 418 years Darnaway (NE Scotland) 2—Durable. Sapwood ≤ 20 years, heartwood over 50 years 300 years [30, 54, 63,64,65]a
  1. aSee [41] p. 130