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Table 1 List of pigments identified with FORS and macro-XRF and possible attributions

From: Dutch or Iranian? Technical study of a seventeenth-century painting on paper from Gesina Ter Bosch’s scrapbook

Region/colour FORS Macro-XRF scanning Attribution
Spectrum features Possible assignment Elements Possible assignment
/interpretation
 WHITE I Not tested   Pb + Ba (trace element) Lead white, barium is present in earth pigments Original Iranian painter
Face, hilt of the dagger, hands and tights, a few dots in the dress      
 WHITE II Not tested   Ca + Sn (trace element) Calcite, Tin probably used as opacifier or extender  Gesina ter Borsch or a seventeenth century Dutch artist
Feather turban, collar and sash, dots in the dress      
Retouching in the forehead, cheeks, chin, ear and hands      
Highlights in the orange and the blue sashes      
 RED First derivative spectrum: inflection point at 598 nm Vermilion Hg, S Vermillion Gesina ter Borsch or a seventeenth century Dutch artist
Shoes      
Dots in the dress      
 BLUE I      
Sash, dots all over the dress, undershirt  Reflectance peak at around 450–480 nm, a broad absorption band between 600–900 nm, and three characteristic absorption bands in the near infra-red at 1495, 2285, 2350 nm  Azurite  Cu  Azurite Gesina ter Borsch or a seventeenth century Dutch artist
BLUE II  ( to be in a new row below) dots in the lower part of the dress Not tested   S, Al, K Lapis lazuli Original Iranian painter
BLUE III Darker areas in the blue Sash Not tested   Co + Ni, As, K, Fe (trace elements) Smalt. Nickel,Arsenic, Potassium and Iron are present in the cobalt ore and are part of the smalt composition Gesina ter Borsch or a seventeenth century Dutch artist
 ORANGE First derivative spectrum: inflection points at 554 nm and 564 nm Orpiment As, S Orpiment Gesina ter Borsch or a seventeenth century Dutch artist
Sash, cup handle and undershirt      
GOLD I (greyish) Not tested   Au Gold based paint Original Iranian painter
Background of the dress, Landscape overpainted with the black paint, highlights in the cup and the turban      
 GOLD II (shiny) Not tested   Au, Cu Gold alloy (with copper) based paint Gesina ter Borsch or a seventeenth century Dutch artist
Highlights in the turban, the sword, the dress and in the cup and handle      
 SILVER Not tested   Ag, Cl Silver based paint, chlorine might come from the preparation of the silver paintChlorine might come from the preparation of the silver paint Gesina ter Borsch or a seventeenth century Dutch artist
Buttons, highlights in the turban, the cup and the dress      
 BROWN Not tested   Fe, Mn Umber Gesina ter Borsch or a seventeenth century Dutch artist
Turban, sleeves, belt, contours      
 GREY Not tested   K, Ti, Si Cannot be identified at that point but probably an earth pigment  
Turban (darker areas under gold)      
 BLACK BACKGROUND Not tested   Ca, K, Co, Fe, Ni Probably carbon black Gesina ter Borsch or a seventeenth century Dutch artist